cat • Voluntariat per la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats • Projecció exterior • Foment de l’ús • Immersió lingüística • Plans educatius d’entorn • Optimot • Foment de l’ús • Cursos • Ús del català • Cursos • parla.cat • Voluntariat per  
la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats • Projecció exterior • Foment de l’ús Immersió lingüística • Plans educatius  
d’entorn Optimot • Foment de l’ús • Cursos • Ús del català • parla.cat • Voluntariat per la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques  
Entitats • Projecció exterior • Foment de l’ús • Immersió lingüística • Optimot Plans educatius d’entorn • Foment de l’ús  
• Cursos • cata là • Cursos • parla.cat Voluntariat per la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats • Foment de l’ús • Plans  
educatius torn • Optimot • Foment de l’ús • Cursos • Ús del català • Cursos • parla.cat • Voluntariat per la llengua Polítiques  
lingüístiques • Entitats • Projecció exterior • Foment de l’ús • Immersió lingüística • Plans educatius d’entorn • Optimot  
Foment de l’ús • Cursos • Ús del català • parla.cat • Voluntariat per la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats •
Foment  
de l’ús • Immersió lingüística • Plans educatius d’entorn • Optimot • Foment de l’ús • Cursos • cat • Voluntariat per la llengua  
• Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats • Projecció exterior • Foment de l’ús • Immersió lingüística • Plans educatius d’entorn •  
Optimot • Foment de l’ús • Cursos • Ús del català • Cursos • parla.cat • Voluntariat per la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques  
• Entitats • Projecció exterior • Foment de l’ús Immersió lingüística • Plans educatius d’entorn Optimot • Foment de l’ús •  
Cursos • Ús del català • parla.cat • Voluntariat per la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques Entitats • Projecció exterior • Foment  
de l’ús • Immersió lingüística • Optimot Plans educatius d’entorn • Foment de l’ús • Cursos • cata là • Cursos • parla.cat  
Voluntariat per la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats • Foment de l’ús • Plans educatius torn • Optimot • Foment  
de l’ús • Cursos • Ús del català • Cursos • parla.cat • Voluntariat per la llengua Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats • Projecció  
exterior • Foment de l’ús • Immersió lingüística • Plans educatius d’entorn • Optimot Foment de l’ús • Cursos • Ús del català • parla.cat • Voluntariat per la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats •
Foment de l’ús • Immersió lingüística • Plans  
educatius d’entorn • Optimot • Foment de l’ús • Cursos •
cat • Voluntariat per la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats  
• Projecció exterior • Foment de l’ús • Immersió lingüística • Plans educatius d’entorn • Optimot • Foment de l’ús • Cursos  
• Ús del català • Cursos • parla.cat • Voluntariat per la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats • Projecció exterior • Foment de l’ús Immersió lingüística • Plans educatius d’entorn Optimot • Foment de l’ús • Cursos • Ús del català • parla.cat  
• Voluntariat per la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques Entitats • Projecció exterior • Foment de l’ús • Immersió lingüística •  
Optimot Plans educatius d’entorn • Foment de l’ús • Cursos • cata là • Cursos • parla.cat Voluntariat per la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats • Foment de l’ús • Plans educatius torn • Optimot • Foment de l’ús • Cursos • Ús del català •  
Cursos • parla.cat • Voluntariat per la llengua Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats • Projecció exterior • Foment de l’ús • Immersió lingüística • Plans educatius d’entorn • Optimot Foment de l’ús • Cursos • Ús del català • parla.cat • Voluntariat per  
la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats • Foment de l’ús • Immersió lingüística • Plans educatius d’entorn • Optimot •  
Foment de l’ús • Cursos • cat • Voluntariat per la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats • Projecció exterior • Foment de  
l’ús • Immersió lingüística • Plans educatius d’entorn • Optimot • Foment de l’ús • Cursos • Ús del català • Cursos • parla. 
cat • Voluntariat per la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats • Projecció exterior • Foment de l’ús Immersió lingüística • Plans educatius d’entorn Optimot • Foment de l’ús • Cursos • Ús del català • parla.cat • Voluntariat per la llengua

Language  
Policy Report

2014

Generalitat de Catalunya 
Ministry of Culture

 

Summary

The current language situation  5

Language knowledge among the population 6

Language use among the population 18

Language use in Barcelona’s retail sector 26

Language use in the media and ICT 29

Language use in cultural industries 33

Language use in education 37

The Justice Administration 43

Government action 47

Promotion of knowledge of Catalan 48

Certification of Catalan knowledge 61

Tools and services for language quality 63

Fostering the use of Catalan 67

Language rights 87

International exposure 89

The teaching of Catalan abroad 89

Collaboration with other Catalan-speaking territories 93

Activities in the Spanish State 96

Involvement in European organisations 97

Sign language in Catalan (LSC) 100 
Promotion of knowledge of Catalan  
sign language 100

Occitan; Aranese in Val d’Aran 103 
The language situation of Aranese Occitan 103

Promoting knowledge of Aranese 107

Encouraging the use of Aranese 108

The legal framework  114

Legislation corresponding to 2014 114

Jurisdictional action 120

Pending regulations 127

Other Catalan-speaking regions:  
regulatory changes 128

Annexes 
Budget 133

Institutional structure 139

 

The language situation

35.7% of the adult population  
of Catalonia was
born  
elsewhere
: 17.2% abroad and  
18.5% in the rest of Spain.

Both parents of 55.3% of the  
adult population
were born  
outside Catalonia.

94.3% of the population aged  
over 15 understand Catalan and
 
80.4%
are able to speak it: 65.6%  
speak it fluently or very well.

82.4% of the population aged  
over 15 can read Catalan and
 
60.4%
can write it.

48% of the population has a  
high standard of Catalan in all  
language skills.

662,300 people have native  
languages other than
Catalan  
or Spanish.

Almost 68% of people who  
deal with the general public,  
salespeople and supervisors  
can speak and write Catalan.

85.5% of managers and  
professionals
can speak  
and write Catalan. 80.4% of
 
technical and administrative  
staff
can speak and write  
Catalan.

750,000 people have adopted  
Catalan even though they have  
different native languages.

60.2% of people born in  
Catalonia with one parent  
who is also a native Catalan  
use Catalan to speak to their  
children.

27.5% of people born in  
Catalonia,
both of whose  
parents were born elsewhere
,  
use Catalan to speak to their  
children.

80% of the population of Val  
d’Aran understand Aranese  
Occitan.

{

{ 
Education

There were 1,295,196 students  
enrolled at schools in Catalonia  
for the 2013-14 academic year.  
Of these,
12.7% are foreigners:  
164,877
students.

Community education plans,  
which strengthen the use of  
Catalan, have reached
333,239  
students.

75% of secondary school  
students have a
high or  
medium-high level
of Catalan  
and Spanish.

96.3% of high school students  
use Catalan in university  
entrance examinations.

The average use of Catalan  
in
degree courses is 76.5%. In  
Masters’
courses, this figure is  
56.8%.

In Catalan universities, 1,815  
language exchange pairs
were  
formed and
5,533 students took  
part in language and cultural  
reception activities.

750,000 adults are interested in  
learning Catalan.

The Consortium for Language  
Normalisation organised
3,229  
courses
for which 67,465 people  
enrolled in
155 locations.

61% of the people who signed  
up for the Beginner and  
Elementary levels of CPNL were
 
born abroad
: 32,309 students.

42,368 new students signed up  
for Parla.cat
, which now has a  
total of
183,325 registered users.

Aula Mestra (Master Class)  
offers more than
3,000 activities  
to adult education teachers to  
create Catalan courses.

1,064 people signed up for  
Catalan courses in vocational  
training and
1,465 in the  
restaurant sector.

14,231 adults obtained a  
Catalan certificate in 2014.

5,848 foreign university  
students
studied Catalan  
language, literature and culture.

182 teachers from all over the  
world
took part in training  
programmes.

147 Catalan courses were  
organized by the Generalitat  
(Catalan government) and
 
Catalan communities abroad.

7 educational centres offered  
bilingual education in
Catalan  
sign language
and Catalan.

108 people followed courses  
in Aranese for adults and
1,591  
students
signed up for online  
Aranese courses.

 

Legal Framework

Decree 150/2014, of 18  
November 2014, on the
 
Reception of Immigrants and 
Returnees to Catalonia:
 
establishes the services for  
achieving skills in Catalan.

Decree 180/2014 of 30  
December 2014, on the
 
certification of legal language  
knowledge
.

Law 13/2014, of 30 October  
2014, on accessibility:
includes  
a section on Catalan sign  
language
.

Decree 12/2014, of 21 January  
2014, granting the
Institute  
of Aranese Studies
the status of  
official language academy and  
linguistic authority on Aranese  
Occitan in Catalonia.

Fostering use

The Census of organisations  
that promote the use of Catalan  
grew by
18.33%, going from  
120 to
142 entities.

More than 90,000 language  
pairs have joined the Language  
Volunteering programme  
in the last 11 years.

4,687 establishments and  
organizations have collaborated  
with the Language Volunteering  
programme.

Readership of daily newspapers  
in Catalan
has grown by 6.8%:  
from 35.3% in 2013 to 42.1%  
in 2014.

There were agreements to  
subtitle
148 films and 17 series  
on
CANAL+, and 40 films  
subtitled in Catalan in
Texas  
Cinemas.

In 2014, the highest-ever  
percentage
of music consumption  
in Catalan was reached:
13.3%.

Grants were awarded to 104  
projects of organizations and  
companies
to promote the use  
of Catalan.

Agreement with PIMEC for the  
CATEMPRÈN
project to support  
business communications in  
Catalan.

The «Oberts al Català» (Open to  
Catalan)
campaign of the Trade  
Confederation of Catalonia,  
with the support of the Ministry  
of Culture, reached
109  
establishments
in 2014.

More than 5,000 agreements  
were reached
between the CPNL  
and companies
to promote the  
use of Catalan.

Agreements with the 5  
professional associations  
in the legal sector
to promote  
the use of Catalan.

1,442 legal professionals  
attended courses in Catalan.

171 State laws translated and  
consolidated in Catalan on the  
Legal Portal of Catalonia, plus
 
10,535
pages of the Official State  
Gazette (BOE) translated into  
Catalan.

12,242,424 searches on  
Optimot
, the online language  
reference service.

More than 80 online  
dictionaries
available on  
TERMCAT.

96 organizations and 14  
languages at the Terminology  
Summit.

1,401 people and 2,339  
qualifications on the Registry  
of Sworn Translators and  
Interpreters.

More than 825,000 people  
visited the exhibition «Catalan,  
the language of Europe»  
in
43 towns.

The language policy websites  
received over
7.5 million visits.

The seventh Occitan Film  
Festival
was shown in 31 towns.

208,077 requests for automatic  
Aranese Occitan translations.

The Institute of Aranese Studies  
was granted official language  
academy status.

{

{

 

5   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

T 
he design of language policies needs to be based on up-to-date information on the current language situation in our society. In Catalonia, various statistical sources are available to provide

information on people’s linguistic knowledge and the uses people make of languages in different  
fields. Among the various sources of sociolinguistic data, the most wide-reaching study is the Population Survey on Language Use (EULP) which has been conducted every five years since 2003 by the  
Ministry of Culture through the General Directorate for Language Policy and IDESCAT (the Catalan  
Institute of Statistics). The Language Policy Report of 2013 presented the main results of this survey.  
Last year an in-depth analysis was carried out and the 2014 report highlights some key factors.

In the last 40 years, the number of people who understand Catalan has increased by 15 percentage points in spite of the population increase of 1.5 million inhabitants who were born elsewhere. 
In 2014 an analysis was also made of the linguistic data of the Population Census of 2011, which  
is done every ten years. The graph on knowledge of Catalan on page 8 shows the linguistic knowledge  
of the population aged 2 and over for 1981, 1991, 2001 and 2011.

The current language situation

 

6   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Language  
knowledge  
among  
the population

The population of Catalonia  
The total population of Catalonia in 2014 was 7,518,903 inhabitants. Of these, 4,835,032 (64.3%) were  
born in Catalonia, 1,393,243 (18.5%) were born in the rest of Spain and 1,290,628 (17.2%) were born  
abroad. The percentage of people born abroad has risen from 1.5% in 1981 to 17.2% in 2014.

Foreign population* by country 2014

Source: IDESCAT.

 population of % of total

 the country  foreign

 population

Morocco  226,818  20.8 %

Romania  98,239  9.0 %

China  49,773  4.6 %

Italy  48,857  4.5 %

Pakistan  44,449  4.1 %

Bolivia  42,039  3.9 %

Ecuador  41,834  3.8 %

Colombia  31,671  2.9 %

France  32,071  2.9 %

Peru  24,269  2.2 %

Dominican  
Republic  21,675  2.0 %

Argentina  20,955  1.9 %

Senegal  20,280  1.9 %

Honduras  20,223  1.9 %

United Kingdom  19,296  1.8 %

Germany  20,119  1.8 %

India  19,268  1.8 %

Russia  19,967  1.8 %

Brazil  17,600  1.6 %

Ukraine  17,786  1.6 %

Gambia  15,835  1.5 %

Other countries  236,190  21.7%

TOTAL  1,089,214  100.0%

*Population with foreign nationality.

The Spanish-speaking foreign population in Catalonia is 267,354 people which represents  
24.5% of the total population with foreign nationality.

Source: IDESCAT. Ongoing population census.

Born in the rest of Spain

Born abroad

Born in Catalonia

Population place  
of birth. 
1981-2014
 
100 %

90 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

1986 1991 1996 2003 2008 2013 2014 1981

63.4 % 65.9 % 67.5 % 68.4 % 66.0 % 62.8 % 64.3 % 63.7 %

1.5 % 1.7 % 1.7 % 2.8 % 9.3 % 16.4 % 17.2 % 17.5 %

34.4 % 32.3 % 30.8 % 28.8 %

24.7 %

20.9 % 18.5 % 18.8 %

 

7   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Family origin of population 
The place of birth is a very important variable with regard to the use and level of knowledge of  
the language, but so is the family origin which to a great extent determines the initial language.  
Successive waves of migrants, the basis of Catalonia’s demographic growth, have determined the  
fact that most Catalans have family origins outside Catalonia.

Both parents of around 29% of the population aged over 15 were born in Catalonia, while for  
14% of the population one parent was born in Catalonia and the other elsewhere in Spain. In the  
population aged over 15 as a whole, both parents were born elsewhere in Spain in 38% of cases,  
while both parents were born abroad in 17% of cases. Finally, only 2% of Catalan residents aged over  
15 are children of a couple formed by one parent born abroad and the other parent both in the rest  
of Spain or Catalonia.

Both parents  
were born outside  
Catalonia for

55.3%  
of the adult  
population

}

Population aged  
15+ according  
to parents’ place  
of birth 2013

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

both in  
catalonia

one parent  
in catalonia  
and the other  
elsewhere

in spain

both elswhere  
in spain 
one parent  
abroad and

the other in  
catalonia or  
elsewhere  
in spain

both parents  
abroad

28.6 %

38.2 %

17.1 %

13.9 %

2.2 %

Source: EULP 2013. Population of 15 years and over. IDESCAT.

 

8   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Breakdown of the population by age, sex and place of birth  
In the foreign-born population there is a majority of men while in the population born in the rest of  
Spain women clearly predominate. 
Virtually all the current child population was born in Catalonia, but the percentage of nativeborn people drops with age; in the group of over-65s less than 50% of the population is native-born,  
the lowest figure being in the group aged 70-74. In contrast, the percentage of people born in other  
parts of Spain is very low in children and young people. In the population segment of over-60s,  
the number of residents born in the rest of Spain is slightly higher than the number of residents  
born in Catalonia. The foreign percentage is quite high in the segment of 15 to 49-year-olds (28.3%),  
particularly in the group of 24 to 34-year-olds (one in every three inhabitants).

The foreign-born  
population represents

one out of  
every three  
inhabitants
in  
the 24 to 34 age group

}

400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000

Population  
according to place  
of birth, sex and  
age. 2014

Men Women

Aged 85+

Aged 80-84

Aged 75 to 79 years

Aged 70 to 74 years

Aged 65 to 69 years

Aged 60 to 64 years

Aged 55 to 59 years

Aged 50 to 54 years

Aged 45 to 49 years

Aged 40 to 44 years

Aged 35 to 39 years

Aged 30 to 34 years

Aged 25 to 29 years

Aged 20 to 24 years

Aged 15 to 19 years

Aged 10 to 14 years

Aged 5 to 9 years

Aged 0 to 4 years

400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000

Source: Municipal Census of Inhabitants. IDESCAT. 
Born elsewhere in Spain

Born abroad

Born in Catalonia

 

9   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Knowledge of Catalan 1981-2011 
In Catalonia, according to data from the 2011 Language Census for the population as a whole,  
knowledge of Catalan is as follows: can understand it (95.2%), can read it (79.1%), can speak it  
(73.2%) and can write it (55.8%).

Overall, reading and especially writing skills have increased quite considerably over the last few  
years in terms of both percentages and absolute figures. The main reason for this is the educational  
system, known as
language conjunction, in which Catalan is used as the main vehicular language.  
This growth in Catalan knowledge has happened despite the major international immigration that  
took place in the first decade of the 21st century.

The ability to speak Catalan, which is a key skill in that it encourages the maintenance and  
spread of oral use, has evolved in a different way. There was a clear increase between 1986 and 2011,  
but not a continued and progressive percentage increase over time; the maximum percentage was  
reached in 2007 since when it has slightly declined.

Understands

Can speak

Can read

Can write

Sources: drawn up by DGPL, based on data from Idescat (1986 to 2011).

100 %

90 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

Knowledge  
of Catalan.  
Population aged 2+.  
1981- 2011

1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2007 2011

79.8 %

90.3 %

64.0 %

60.5 %

68.3 %

67.6 %

39.9 %

31.5 %

75.3 %

72.4 %

45.8 %

74.5 %

74.3 %

49.8 %

75.6 %

79.1 %

73.0 %

56.3 %

73.2 %

55.8 %

93.8 % 95.0 % 94.5 % 93.8 % 95.2 %

 

Knowledge of Catalan in eleven major towns 
The data relating to large towns corroborate the general trend towards an increase in knowledge up  
to 2001, followed by a gradual drop from that date onwards in most of the cities in the study, with  
three notable exceptions: Sabadell, Terrassa and Mataró. In the case of the first two, not only has there  
been no drop in numbers but, in fact, the percentage of people who can speak Catalan remained  
stable between 1986 and 2011, with an increase between 2001 and 2011. The reason for this appears  
to lie in the different intensities of the two major immigration waves in the last 60 years. In this case,  
Sabadell and Terrassa are the two cities in the study with the lowest percentage of foreigners arriving  
in the last 5 year periods. Given that the reason for the backward slide in the percentage of people  
who can speak Catalan over the last five year periods is the international immigration of the early21st century, the lower proportion in this case has allowed the trend to be overturned.

 1986 1991 1996 2001 2011

Ability to speak Catalan by municipality. Population aged 2+. 1986-2011

90 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

29

42

49

51

62

64

62

55 55

58 58

62

69 69 70 70 70 70 70 70 71 71

74 75 75 7575 75 75 74

78 78 79

82 82 83

81

80

71

61

64 65

67

72 72 72 72

55

43

59 59

42

52 53 
51

santa coloma  
de gramenet 
l'hospitalet  
de llobregat

badalona sabadell terrassa mataró tarragona barcelona reus lleida girona

Source: Language Census.

In Sabadell, Terrassa  
and Mataró the  
percentage of the  
population who can speak

Catalan  
has grown
 
steadily since 1986

{ }

 

11   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Knowledge of Catalan in the adult population 
In Catalonia, most of the population aged over 15 say they can understand, speak, read and write  
Catalan in the following proportions: can understand (94.3%), can speak (80.4%), can read (82.4%),  
can write (60.4%).

The number of people who know how to speak Catalan has increased by more than 9% since 1986  
and the number of people who know how to write it has almost doubled (by 24 percentage points).

Knowledge  
of Catalan. 
Population of  
15 years and over.  
2003-2013

2003 2008 2013

Source: EULP2013. Population of 15 years and over.

58.8 %

61.8 %

81.6 %

89.0 %

94.6 %

78.3 %

81.7 %

94.3 %

80.4 %

82.4 %

60.4 %

100 %

90 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

96.5 %

Understands

Can speak

Can read

Can write

 

12   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Knowledge of Catalan by level 
The vast majority (94.3%) of the population aged over 15 say they understand Catalan, though when  
this is qualified by levels those who understand it perfectly or very well drops to 80.7%. 
80.4% say they can speak Catalan while 65.6% say they speak it fluently or very well. 82.4% say  
they can read Catalan, but only 69.7% say they read it perfectly or very well.

Finally, 60.4% of Catalans aged over 15 say they can write Catalan, while 48.7% say they can  
write it perfectly or very well. Everything points to the fact that there are certain large sectors of the  
adult population who have not yet fully assimilated Catalan language skills.

65.6% of the adult  
population speak Catalan  
fluently or very well

Yes

No

100 %

90 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

Knowledge  
of Catalan by level.  
2013

4.8 % 17.5 % 15.2 % 32.1 %

3.6 %

5.9 %

4.4 %

7 %

10.4 %

11.0 %

10.6 %

12.2 %

17.1 %

16.9 %

17.2 %

19.2 %

64.1 %

48.7 % 52.5 %

29.5 %

5.7 % 19.6 % 17.6 % 39.6 %

94.3 %

80.4 % 82.4 %

60.4 %

Good

Not at all

Average

Very little

Fluent

understand

yes/no level yes/no level yes/no level yes/no level

can speak it can read it can write it

Source: EULP 2013. Population of 15 years and over.

{ }

 

13   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Population according to Catalan knowledge 
In Catalonia, 48.1% of the population has a high level of Catalan in all skills (2,963,000 people);  
17.5% speak it easily but have a low level of reading and writing (1,080,000); and 7.8% (483,000) understand and read Catalan but have weak speaking and writing skills.

One in every four citizens aged over 15 (26.6%) has weaknesses (1,634,000), as they have either  
no knowledge or very little knowledge of Catalan, or they have a low level in every skill (10.5%), or  
they understand and read Catalan a little but neither speak nor write it (5%), or they do not understand anything or just a tiny bit (11.1%). The lower level of Catalan knowledge is primarily among  
immigrants despite the incorporation of younger, better-educated generations and the progressive  
loss of generations with less Catalan education.

Type of Catalan  
knowledge. 
2008-2013

2013

2008

50 % 45 % 40 % 35 % 30 % 25 % 20 % 15 % 10 % 5 % 0 %

Source: EULP2013. Population of 15 years and over.

Has a high level in every  
skill

Can speak it, but has difficulties  
reading and writing

Understands and can read it easily  
and can speak a little

Has a low level in every skill

Understands and reads it easily  
but cannot speak or write it

Does not understand, or finds  
it very difficult to understand

48.1 %

17.5 %

7.8 %

5.0 %

10.5 %

45.1 %

20.2 %

7.0 %

6.6 %

11.4 %

11.1 %

9.6 %

48%

of the population  
(2,963,000 people) have  
a high level of Catalan  
in every skill
{ }

 

Professional profiles and knowledge of Catalan and Spanish 
Four main groups can be distinguished in terms of professional profiles. With regard to manual  
workers, most people were born outside Catalonia. Except for Spanish, their language skills are limited. Just over 46% of them claim every language skill in Catalan. This group is characterized by a  
low level of higher education, fewer women, a larger proportion of immigrants and limited use of  
Catalan as the habitual language.

In the case of people who deal with the public, salespeople and supervisors, this group is predominantly female with lower university studies rates than the average. Although this particular  
profile is not usually required to produce complex written work, their Catalan skills are still limited  
(67.9% understand, speak and write Catalan). This group has the highest interest in learning or improving their knowledge of Catalan.

Among administrative and technical personnel or copywriters there are noticeable differences  
compared to the previous groups. More than 80% have all the Catalan language skills. This is the  
group with the lowest rates of foreigners and those born elsewhere in Spain, primarily made up of  
professionals with university qualifications. There are more women than men in this group.

Almost 68% of  
people who deal with  
the public, salespeople  
and supervisors

can speak and

write Catalan
}

Knowledge of  
Catalan and Spanish  
by profession.  
2008-2013

manual  
workerss

dealing with  
the public, salespeople  
and supervisors

administrative  
and technical staff

managers,  
professionals  
and scientists

total

Catalan: can speak,  
read and write it

Spanish: can speak,  
read and write it

49.3 %

95.0 %

2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2013 2013 2013 2013 2013 2013 2013 2013 2013 2013

98.0 % 99.7 %

97.1 % 96.5 %

98.8 % 99.4 % 97.5 %

46.3 %

61.6 %

84.2 %

83.1 %

93.2 %

97.5 %

100 %

90 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

80.4 %

85.5 %

68.2 %

65.7 %

Source: EULP2013. Population of 15 years and over. 
67.9 %

 

15   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Interest in learning Catalan   
17.6% of the Catalan population have followed a non-official Catalan language course at some time.  
This represents a total of just over 1,100,000 people. 
There are four distinct profiles with a relative interest in or association with learning Catalan  
for adults: a) those who have already done some kind of course and wish to continue (just over  
700,000 people); b) those who do not want to continue doing a course (approx. 300,000 people);  
c) those who have never done a course but would like to enrol on one (over 1,800,000 people), and  
d) people who have never done a course nor wish to do one (just over 2,860,000 people).

With regard to profiles, the group with the highest expectations is that of people born abroad.  
This is the group with the highest number of people who want to do a course, regardless of whether or not they have already done one. In total there are almost 750,000 people; 275,000 who have  
already done a course and wish to continue studying Catalan, and around 475,000 who have never  
done a course but are interested in learning the language.

750,000 adults  
are interested in learning  
Catalan

Learners who do not want  
to continue

Have never done a course  
but would like to

Have never done a course  
and do not want to

Learners who want  
to continue doing a course

Interest in learning 
Catalan according  
to place of birth 
2013

100 %

90 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

8.8 % 9.9 % 26.4 %

5.9 % 7.1 %

3.9 %

31.4 % 22.6 %

44.4 %

53.9 %

60.4 %

25.3 %

catalonia elsewhere

in spain

abroad

Source: EULP2013. Population of 15 years and over.

{ }

 

16   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

People who can speak each language 
The percentage of the adult population who say they can speak Spanish has remained stable at almost 100%. 
With regard to Catalan, the percentage has grown by more than 2% between 2008 and 2013,  
reaching a maximum of 80.4% of the population aged over 15.

Over the same period, knowledge of English grew by 4.6% while that of French dropped by  
0.3%. The average of people who say they can speak other languages has also risen by over 4%.

80.4% of  
the population  
aged over 15

can speak  
Catalan
{ }

Catalan Spanish English French

2008   2013 2008   2013 2008   2013 2008   2013

People who can speak each language. 2008 and 2013

Source: EULP2013. Population of 15 years and over.

understand can speak it can read it can write it

100 %

90 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

94.6 %

78.3 %

81.7 %

61.8 %

99.9 % 99.7 %

97.4 %

95.6 %

99.8 % 99.7 %

97.4 %

95.9 %

94.3 %

80.4 %

82.4 %

60.4 %

38.4 %

31.0 % 34.7 %

30.6 %

32.0 %

26.4 % 27.9 %

24.1 % 21.3 % 
16.7 % 
16.9 %

12.7 %

23.9 %

16.4 % 19.2 %

12.8 %

 

17   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

In Catalonia, 662,300 people have different native languages from Catalan or Spanish, broken  
down as follows: Arabic, 151,700 people; Romanian (56,100), Amazigh (41,800), French (38,800),  
Galician (33,200), Russian (31,900), Italian (29,200), Portuguese (26,500) and English (26,500).

662,300 people have  
other native languages than Catalan  
and Spanish
{ }

41.8 38.8 33.2 31.9 29.2 26.5 26.5

2.2

200

150

100

50

0

Source: EULP2013. Population of 15 years and over.

Population with  
other languages  
as first language.  
2013 (thousands)

56.1

Romanian Amazigh French Galician Russian Italian English Portuguese Aranese Other

combinations

Arabic Other

languages

151.7

193.5

31.0

 

18   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

From first language to identification language 
One of the characteristics of Catalan as a language of identification is its power of attraction; in other  
words, people regard it as their language even though it was not their first or native language. This  
is corroborated by 750,000 people (12.1% of the population aged over 15) who declare themselves  
as Catalan-speakers even though they have other linguistic origins, mainly Spanish. In the case of  
speakers of other languages, Spanish has the highest power of attraction.

The most important language groups are: people who still maintain Spanish (44.9%; 2,772,000  
people) and those who maintain Catalan (29.2%; 1,803,000).

Language use  
among the  
population

750,000 people  
(12.1% of the population  
aged over 15) adopt  
Catalan despite having

other linguistic origins

50 % 45 % 40 % 35 % 30 % 25 % 20 % 15 % 10 % 5 % 0 %

From first language  
to identification  
language. 2013
Maintain Spanish

Maintain Catalan

Adopt Catalan  
(on its own or combined)

Maintain other languages

Adopt Spanish after Catalan  
(on its own or combined)

Adopt Spanish from other  
languages (on its own or combined)

Maintain Catalan and Spanish

Adopt other languages  
(on their own or combined)

Other situations

44.9 %

29.2 %

12.1 %

7.9 %

2.4 %

2.0 %

1.0 %

0.3 %

0.2 %

Source: EULP2013. Population of 15 years and over.

{ }

 

Use of Catalan  
with parents and  
children depending  
on family origin.  
2013

Intergenerational language transmission 
The graph below shows the use of Catalan with parents and children corresponding to each category  
of the family’s geographic origin variable. There are five categories which, from left to right, range from  
the most to the least deeply rooted population in the region. The category with the most deeply-rooted  
population is made up of people who were born in Catalan-speaking regions and whose parents were also  
born there. People within the least deeply-rooted population are found in the two categories to the right,  
comprising people born outside the Catalan-speaking region. This shows the major impact of migrations  
over the last 60 years on the family use of Catalan: only the people most deeply-rooted in the region are  
primary users of Catalan with their parents and children.

The two groups that have moved forward the most in language transmission are those who were  
born in Catalan-speaking regions as the children of those born outside them. This demonstrates that the  
power of attraction of Catalan continues to be very strong, as a significant proportion of the children of  
those who have migrated from outside Catalonia adopt Catalan as their family and future languages, with  
children choosing to use it.

subject and  
both parents  
born in catalanspeaking

regions

subject and one  
parent born  
in catalanspeaking

regions

subject born  
in catalanspeaking region  
with both

parents born  
elsewhere

subject born  
elsewhere  
in spain

subject born  
abroad

Use of Catalan  
with parents

Use of Catalan  
with children

90 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

84.6 %

60.2 %

27.5 %

5.6 %

8.1 %

79.2 %

23.2 %

2.2 % 1.2 % 1.5 %

Source: EULP2013. Population of 15 years and over.

27.5% of native  
Catalans, both of whose  
parents were born  
elsewhere, use Catalan

with their children { }

{ }

60.2% of those  
born in Catalonia with  
one parent also born here  
use Catalan with their

children

 

20   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Language maintenance and adoption in intergenerational transmission  
The
maintain categories refer to people who speak the same language with their parents and children;  
there is no change in transmission. Those who do change are included in the ‘adopt’ categories, which  
refers to people who speak to their children in a different language than the one they use with their  
parents.

The other cases category is a catch-all category of sub-samples that are too small to be relevant  
for analysis. 
In most of the population (76.2%) there is no change in intergenerational transmission; in other words, the same language is spoken with both parents and children. Among those who change,  
the largest group adopts Catalan (11.9%); 6.6% adopt both Catalan and Spanish with their children;  
while the smallest group, 3.8%, adopts Spanish. The group that adopts Catalan amounts to around  
470,000 people.

11.9% of people adopt Catalan with  
their children, even though they speak  
other languages with their own parents.

Also, 6.6% adopt Catalan  
and Spanish with their children

Behaviour in  
intergenerational  
language  
transmission.  
2013

Other cases  
1.5%

Adopt Spanish  
3.8

Adopt Catalan  
and Spanish  
6.6 %

Adopt Catalan  
11.9%

Maintain other language  
or combinations thereof  
7.2%

Maintain Catalan  
25.6%

Maintain  
Spanish  
43.4%

Source: EULP2013. Population of 15 years and over.


}

 

Language use 
In Catalonia there are two languages of habitual use: 36.3% of the population say they use Catalan  
while 50.7% say they use Spanish, while 6.8% say they use both languages regularly. 6% say they use  
other languages or other combinations.

This distinction between two major groups can be qualified if instead of referring to the habitual language we apply the percentage of use of each language declared by each person. Those  
surveyed can be broken down according to their use of spoken Catalan and Spanish in increments  
of 10% as well as two sections at each end of those who speak the language either 100% or not at  
all. The data show that in Catalonia there are not two distinct user groups but rather a continuum  
between 0% and 100%. One quarter of the population say they never speak Catalan while 12% say  
they speak it between 1% and 10% of the time. 62.6% of the population make varied use of Catalan  
which ranges from 11% to 100%. Exclusive users of Catalan represent 6.3% of the population. In  
terms of the use of Spanish, there is a slightly different result: at one end of the continuum is 19.4%  
of the population who say they only speak Spanish, followed by a small series of waves made up of  
speakers of Spanish in different proportions down to 6.8% who say they never speak it.

30 % 25 % 20 % 15 % 10 % 5 % 0 %

Sociolinguistic  
groups.  
2013

100%

91% - 99%

81% - 90%

71% - 80%

61% to 70%

51% to 60%

50 %

31% to 40%

41% to 49%

21% to 30%

11% - 20%

1% - 10%

0  %

6.3 %

5.6 %

8.7 %

8.1 %

4.7 %

3.2 %

0.5 %

5.1 %

5.6 %

5.8 %

12.0 %

6.8 %

25.4 %

0.5 %

5.0 %

7.0 %

8.5 %

14.5 %

9.0 %

4.3 %

6.7 %

6.2 %

5.3 %

4.7 %

11.1 %

19.4 %

Catalan

Spanish

Source: EULP2013. Population of 15 years and over.

There are not  
two distinct language  
groups.

62.6% of the  
population makes varied  
use of Catalan ranging

from 11%  
up to 100%


}

 

Language use in consumer and service sectors 
In Catalonia there is no diglossia situation; in other words, languages are not chosen according to  
the environment, but quite the contrary – it seems that in every environment people speak both  
Catalan and Spanish but in different proportions.

Those who only or mainly speak Catalan are found mainly in dealings with local and Generalitat administrations and in relations with fellow students. At the other extreme, those who only  
or mainly use Spanish mostly use it in personal messages, relations with the State Administration  
based in Catalonia, in large department stores, with neighbours and at home.

It turns out that some of the areas that would seem less favourable towards Catalan when adding in the categories of only and more … than are actually better placed when compared to the  
results of only Catalan because there are certain areas that lean heavily towards a certain language  
and others that facilitate the use of both languages in different proportions.

More Catalan  
than Spanish

Catalan only

Spanish only

More Spanish  
than Catalan

Same Catalan  
as Spanish

More of other  
languages than  
Catalan or Spanish

Other  
combinations

Other languages  
only

Language uses  
in the context of  
consumption and  
service provision.  
2013

100 % 50 % 90 % 40 % 80 % 30 % 70 % 20 % 60 % 10 % 0 %

Generalitat  
Administration

Local  
administration

Banks and  
savings banks

Doctor

State  
Administration

Shops and small  
retailers

Large retailers

42.0 %

39.5 %

31.5 %

28.1 %

23.9 %

21.6 %

18.2 %

9.8 %

11.0 %

11.9 %

12.6 %

13.8 %

17.8 %

16.1 %

7.6 %

8.3 %

11.8 %

12.2 %

11.6 %

15.1 %

15.6 %

7.1 %

7.1 %

8.0 %

7.3 %

10.6 %

11.3 %

13.2 %

33.4 %

33.9 %

36.5 %

39.6 %

39.8 %

33.5 %

36.6 %

Source: EULP2013. Population of 15 years and over.

Those who speak

only or mainly  
Catalan
 
predominate in relations  
with local and Generalitat

administrations and  
in relations with fellow  
students


}

 

Interpersonal language use 
Generally speaking, the situations in which there are few interlocutors, such as writing notes or at  
home, are more favourable to the use of a single language than situations with a lot of people such  
as friends, neighbours, clients and work colleagues. Seen from this perspective, the most favourable  
situations to the use of Catalan are not the more formal or private ones but rather those in which one  
or more of the following conditions arises:

a) The speaker has the guarantee that all the other people know that language, such as local or  
Generalitat administrations or fellow students (most of whom are fluent in both languages). 
b) The speaker is interested in adapting to the other people, for example if they are clients. In  
this respect, it is significant that the percentage of people surveyed who deal with clients and users  
and say they only speak Spanish does not even reach 25%.

In other words, those who can speak Catalan speak it wherever they can when their counterparts also speak it.

More Catalan  
than Spanish

Catalan only

Spanish only

More Spanish  
than Catalan

Same Catalan  
as Spanish

More of other  
languages than Catalan  
or Spanish

Other combinations

Other languages only

Interpersonal  
language use.  
2013

100 % 50 % 90 % 40 % 80 % 30 % 70 % 20 % 60 % 10 % 0 %

At home

Personal messages

Current fellow students

Neighbours

Work colleagues  
(only employed population)

Work colleagues (employed  
and those who are unemployed  
but have worked previously)

Friends

Clients/users in Catalonia

26.7 %

23.2 %

20.8 %

17.5 %

17.5 %

17.1 %

15.1 %

12.9 %

5.4 %

23.8 %

14.9 %

17.2 %

16.0 %

16.0 %

24.7 %

17.6 %

15.9 %

18.0 %

17.1 %

15.8 %

23.0 %

15.6 %

12.0 %

15.2 %

13.8 %

14.9 %

11.5 %

16.8 %

38.1 %

27.3 %

31.7 %

30.8 %

23.2 %

7.5 % 9.8 % 48.7 %

8.0 % 11.4 % 39.7 %

Source: EULP2013. Population of 15 years and over.

Customer-facing  
service staff adapt their  
language to Catalan

speakers in 60%  
of cases
{ }

5.5 %

 

24   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Demolinguistic profiles in regional terms 
In metropolitan Catalonia, which comprises the city of Barcelona, the rest of the metropolitan area of  
Barcelona, the Penedès region and the county of Camp de Tarragona, Spanish clearly predominates  
in terms of both the first language and the language uses of the population. Given that this is home  
to the largest population, in overall terms what happens in these regions determines the results of  
the whole Principality of Catalonia.

In the territorial group made up of Girona province, the central counties, the Ponent region  
and the High Pyrenees and Aran, Catalan is the most widely-used language, though there is an  
increase in other languages as a result of more recent immigration. This phenomenon could reduce  
the influence of Catalan as the habitual language in demographic terms.

A third demolinguistic profile is formed by the Terres de l’Ebre, where the use of Catalan is  
clearly in a majority as well as native Catalan speakers. The percentage of people born elsewhere  
in Spain is much lower here than in other regions, yet the number of people born abroad is not.  
Catalan is the predominant language in every indicator.

Sociolinguistic groups by region. 2013

 mainly use alternate between mainly use mainly use other

 catalan catalan and spanish spanish languages and spanish

Rest of the metropolitan area 20.9 % 20.4 % 52.1 % 6.6 %

Barcelona city  30.1 % 24.6 % 35.3 % 10 %

Penedès 34.6 % 21.5 % 35.1 % 8.8 %

Camp de Tarragona 36.1 % 19.7 % 34 % 10.2 %

Counties of Girona 53.2 % 16.3 % 17.9 % 12.6 %

High Pyrenees and Aran 61.1 % 12.1 % 15.9 % 10.9 %

Central counties 63.1 % 17.1 % 14.1 % 5.7 %

Ponent region 63.2 % 13.2 % 13.7 % 9.9 %

Terres de l’Ebre 73.2 % 9.6 % 9.1 % 8.2 %

Source: EULP2013. Population of 15 years and over.

 

25   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

The language in which conversations are started  
25.3% of the population of Catalonia say they always start conversations in Catalan; 26.5% do so very  
often; 17.8% only sometimes and 30.4% say they never start a conversation in Catalan because they  
are not competent enough (19.1%) or because they don’t want to (11.3%).

Overall, 51.8%, representing around three million people, always or very often start conversations in Catalan; one million people do not often start conversations in Catalan, and 30.8%, almost  
1.9 million people, say they never start a conversation in Catalan.

Frequency of starting  
conversations  
in Catalan. 2013

Never  
30.4%

Not very often  
17.8%

Very often  
26.5%

Always  
25.3%

Source: EULP2013. Population of 15 years and over.

51% of the population always

or very often start conversations

in Catalan { }

 

26   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Language use  
in Barcelona’s  
retail sector

Availability of Catalan in the retail sector in Barcelona 
An analysis was made of the languages available in 4,778 establishments in Barcelona, in different  
districts of the city. The result gives a closer insight into the availability of Catalan in commercial  
establishments. With the data collected, an index of between 0 and 100 points was drawn up which  
sums up the availability of Catalan in different business sectors.

The index of identifying signage is higher than that of informative signage, given that almost  
one third of informative signage is written in Spanish. Both the identifying signage and the informative signage have improved a great deal since 2005 (by 11 and 14 points respectively).

The indicator of oral language adaptation is 30 points higher than that of language identification, which indicates that many, but not all, establishments adapt to the customer’s language. 
Since 2005, there has been a slight drop in the use of oral language which has been more significant in oral language identification. In other words, fewer establishments are using Catalan straight  
away with customers. This decline in the use of Catalan as a service language can be attributed to  
establishments run by foreign immigrants.

2012

2005

Ofercat Index,  
Barcelona. 
2005-2012

Source: Ofercat Barcelona, 2012.

identifying  
signage

informative  
signage

oral

identification  
language

oral adaptation  
language

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

56

67

42

56

46

40

72 70

 

27   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Identifying signage and informative signage by district 
The Ofercat index fluctuates between a maximum in Gràcia and a minimum in Ciutat Vella. 
The use of Catalan in signage has improved compared to 2005 in all districts, especially Horta-Guinardó, Sants-Montjuïc, Sant Martí, Sant Andreu and Nou Barris. The growing presence of  
franchise signage in the more central districts, where the only identification is the brand name of the  
chain, often in another language, limits the growth of Catalan in signage in these districts.

Ofercat indicators on identifying and informative signage by district. Barcelona

Identifying  
signage

Informative  
signage

sarrià -  
sant gervasi

gràcia horta - 

guinardó

sants -  
montjuïc

sant  
martí

sant  
andreu

nou  
barris

eixample les corts ciutat

vella

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

73 73

71 71

66

63 62 61 60

70

51 51

55

58

70

45

58 57

63

45

Source: Ofercat Barcelona, 2012.

 

28   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Oral identification and adaptation language  
The language used in service situations is closely connected to the sociolinguistic situation of the region. The use of Catalan as the oral identification language has dropped compared to 2005 in almost  
every district, especially where the number of immigrants is highest (Ciutat Vella). In contrast, the  
use of Catalan as an oral service language has improved in Gràcia, Les Corts and Sarrià-Sant Gervasi.

In every district, the use of Catalan as an oral adaptation language is much better than its use as  
an oral identification language. This difference is particularly noticeable in Sant Andreu, Les Corts,  
Eixample and Sant Martí.

Ofercat indicators on oral identification and adaptation language by district. Barcelona

Language  
of oral  
identification

Language  
of oral  
adaptation

sarrià -  
sant gervasi

gràcia horta - 

guinardó

sants -  
montjuïc

sant  
martí

sant  
andreu

nou  
barris

eixample les corts ciutat

vella

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

68

34 33 32

19

43

50

57

31

83

65 64

62

73

34

50

76

84

79

56

In every district  
of Barcelona,  
the availability  
of Catalan as an
oral

adaptation  
language is  
considerably
 
better than its use in

oral identification


}

Source: Ofercat Barcelona, 2012.

 

29   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Language use  
in the media  
and ICT

The radio is  
the medium in which  
Catalan is most  
widely used, with

63.5%  
of listeners
{ }

Television and radio 
Some 54.2% of television viewers have watched programmes in Catalan while 82.7% have watched  
programmes in Spanish. In the last year, viewing figures of television in Catalan have increased, as  
in 2013 the percentage of people who had watched programmes in Catalan was 47.8%.

The radio is the medium with the highest audience in Catalan with 63.5% (radio in Catalan  
only – 42.1%; in both Catalan and Spanish – 21.4%). In the last period, the audience of Catalan-only  
programmes dropped by 1.8 points but the listening audience of radio stations broadcasting in both  
languages increased by 3 points.

100 %

90 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

Language of radio use. 2013-2014 
Multiple-choice question about the total users of each medium

43.9 % 42.1 %

45.1 %

39.0 %

18.4 %

21.4 %

2.1 % 1.6 %

catalan catalan spanish spanish in both

languages

other  
languages

other  
languages

Source: Survey on cultural participation in Catalonia 2014.  
People aged 14+. Yesterday’s audience.

100 %

90 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

2.6 %

Language of television use. 2013-2014 
Multiple-choice question about the total users of each medium

47.8 %

54.2 %

83.0 % 82.7 %

3.4 %

Source: Survey of cultural participation in Catalonia 2014.  
People aged 14+. Yesterday’s audience.

2013      2014 2013      2014 2013      2014 2013      2014 2013      2014 2013      2014 2013      2014

 

30   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Newspapers and magazines 
42.1% of people who read newspapers have read a newspaper in Catalan and 17.3% have read the dual  
Catalan/Spanish version. 43.6% of newspaper readers have read a newspaper in Spanish. The use of  
newspapers in Catalan has increased in the last year by almost 7% and the use of newspapers with  
editions in both languages by almost 3%.

With regard to magazines, 19.1% of people who have read magazines did so in Catalan and 26%  
in both languages. 56.7% of people read them in Spanish. Since 2013, the readership of magazines  
in Catalan has increased by 6% and the readership of magazines in both Catalan and Spanish by  
almost 19%.

The readership  
of newspapers in Catalan

has gone from 35.3%

in 2013 to 42.1%  
in 2014

Source: Survey on cultural participation in Catalonia. People aged 14+.  
Yesterday newspapers audience, magazine audience in the last 30 days.

Source: Survey on cultural participation in Catalonia. People aged 14+.  
Yesterday newspapers audience, magazine audience in the last 30 days.

100 %

90 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

Language of newspaper readership. 2013-2014 
Multiple-choice question about the total users of each medium

35.3 %

42.1 %

48.4 %

43.6 %

14.4 % 17.3 %

1.2 % 1.9 %

catalan spanish both

editions

other  
languages

Language of magazine readership. 2013-2014 
Multiple-choice question about the total users of each medium

100 %

90 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

12.9 %

19.1 %

83.5 %

56.7 %

7.2 %

26.0 %

5.5 % 4.0 %

catalan spanish both

editions

other  
languages

{ }

2013      2014 2013      2014 2013      2014 2013      2014 2013      2014 2013      2014 2013      2014 2013      2014

 

31   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Internet 
37.6% of people who have used the internet visited pages in Catalan and 88.4% in Spanish. 20.7% of  
internet users visit pages in other languages, mainly English (15.3%). 
The use of websites in Catalan has fallen by 4.1 points since 2013. Since 2013 there has also  
been a drop in the use of websites in other languages (-4.5 points) while the use of pages in Spanish  
has also continued to drop (-0.7 points). The fact that internet searches are less multilingual means  
that the user rates of all languages have dropped.

Language of  
internet usage.  
2013-2014
 
Multiple-choice  
question on the total  
users of each medium

100 %

90 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

2,6 %

41.7 %

37.6 %

89.1 % 88.4 %

25.2 %

catalan spanish other

languages

Source: Survey on cultural participation in Catalonia 2014.  
People aged 14+. Audience in the last 30 days.

20.7 %

2013      2014 2013      2014 2013      2014

 

32   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Videogames 
In 2014, 73.7% of videogame users played a videogame in Spanish during the last three months,  
while just 1.6% played a videogame in Catalan; 22.2% have played games in other languages. 
The limited range of videogames in Catalan makes it very difficult for there to be any increase  
in videogame use in this language. The use of videogames in Spanish continues the downward  
trajectory that started in 2012 and there is an increase in the use of videogames in other languages  
(4 percentage points more than in 2013).

2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

100 %

90 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

Catalan Spanish Other

84.1 %

14.3 %

1.4 %

82.3 %

16.5 %

1.9 %

84.7 %

14.8 %

1.6 % 1.6 %

82.2 %

16.1 %

1.8 %

78.5 %

73.7 %

18.2 %

22.2 %

1.9 %

Language of the last  
videogame played.  
2009-2014

Source: Survey on cultural participation in Catalonia 2014.  
Population aged 14+ who have played a videogame in the last three months.

 

33   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Language use  
in cultural  
industries

Cinema 
Of the total film sessions in Catalan cinemas, 3% were dubbed, subtitled or original versions in Catalan. In absolute numbers, the total number of dubbed, subtitled or original film versions shown in  
Catalan amounted to 22,816.

In 2014, of the most recent films seen by cinemagoers, 5.5% were in Catalan, 88.8% were in  
Spanish and the other 5.5% were in other languages.

Catalan Spanish Other

Language of most recent film seen. 2009-2014 Film sessions in Catalan. Original versions, dubbed and subtitled. 2009-2014

2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

100 %

90 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

91.3 % 91.4 %

4.7 %

3.8 %

4.3 %

4.5 %

5.1 % 5.1 %

7.9 %

5.3 %

8.3 %

5.5 %

6.0 % 5.5 %

Source: Survey on cultural participation in Catalonia, 2014.  
People aged 14+ who have been to the cinema in the last three months.

87.3 % 86.4 % 88.2 % 88.8 %

2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

100 %

90 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

2.5 % 3.1 % 3.5 % 4.8 % 2.9 % 3.0 %

Source: Cultural statistics, 2015.

 

34   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Books 
In 2013, 26.2% of publications were in Catalan, 65% in Spanish and 8.8% in other languages. In absolute numbers, 8,747 publications were released in Catalan. 
Although the number of books in Catalan dropped between 2012 and 2013 in percentage terms,  
in absolute numbers there were 250 more titles in 2013.

In 2014, 24.8% of readers read a book in Catalan and 69% in Spanish. Since 2013 the percentage  
of readers of books in Catalan has remained steady and even increased slightly, while there has been  
a slight drop in readers of Spanish books.

There is an evident relationship between supply and consumption, as the percentages in relation to both are around 25%.

In 2014, 24.8%  
of readers said the last  
book they read was  
in Catalan

Language of the last book read. 2009-2014

2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

100 %

90 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

71.4 % 70.4 %

4.2 %

24.4 %

5.0 %

25.5 %

5.6 % 5.6 %

26.7 %

5.6 %

27.8 %

5.9 %

24.3 % 24.8 %

Source: Survey on cultural participation in Catalonia, 2014.  
People aged 14+ who have read a book in the last 12 months.

69.0 % 66.6 %

70.0 % 69.0 %

Catalan Spanish Other Catalan Spanish Other

Publishing output (titles) in Catalonia by publication language.  
2009-2013

2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

100 %

90 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

69.6 %

25.6 %

4.8 %

70.6 %

67.4 %

63.3 % 65.0 %

24.9 %

4.5 %

24.7 %

7.9 %

26.8 %

9.9 %

26.2 %

8.8 %

Source: Cultural statistics, 2015.

{ }

 

35   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Performance 
In 2013, 56% of theatrical performances were in Catalan, 26.7% in Spanish, 8.3% in multiple languages  
and 2% in other languages. In absolute numbers there were 9,341 theatrical performances in Catalan. 
In 2014, 52.9% of theatre and performing arts audiences said the last show they saw was in  
Catalan, 43.8% in Spanish and 6.7% in other languages.

Catalan is the predominant language of the theatre offering and audiences in Catalonia. Availability  
determines linguistic consumption, in that consumption is low for cultural products in short supply,  
yet on the other hand, when cultural products are widely available, so is their consumption in Catalan.

Catalan Spanish Other Multilingual Non-speaking

Performance arts shown in theatres by language of publication.  
2009-2013

2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

55.6 %

28.4 %

8.7 % 5.2 % 5.0 % 6.6 % 7.9 %

2.1 %

56.2 % 54.6 %

58.6 % 56.0 %

27.2 %

9.0 %

2.6 %

27.5 %

9.2 %

2.1 %

24.6 %

7.2 %

1.7 %

26.7 %

6.9 %

2.0 %

Source: Cultural statistics, 2015.

8.3 %

Source: Survey on cultural participation in Catalonia, 2014. Multiple-choice question.  
People aged 14+ who have been to a show in the last 12 months.

Language of most recent show seen. 2013-2014

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

51.4 % 52.9 %

46.5 %

43.8 %

6.8 % 6.7 % 6.0 % 3.8 %

catalan spanish other

languages

no language

2013      2014 2013      2014 2013      2014 2013      2014

 

36   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Music 
In the last three months, 13.3% of consumers chose to listen to songs in Catalan, 44.7% to songs in  
Spanish and 40.2% to songs in other languages or music without lyrics. 
In terms of trends, and with regard to Catalan, the percentages achieved in 2011 have been  
recovered and even surpassed in 2014. For this reason, in 2014 the percentage of consumption of  
music in Catalan reached its highest point since 2009. In 2014, the percentage

of consumption of music  
in Catalan reached its  
highest point since 2009:

13.3% 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

100 %

90 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

61.6 %

32.6 %

5.8 %

58.6 %

37.7 %

9.7 %

52.2 %

42.7 %

12.4 %

47.1 %

43.1 %

9.8 %

44.7 % 43.7 %

42.9 %

40.2 %

9.1 %

13.3 %

Source: Survey on cultural participation in Catalonia 2014.  
People aged 14+ who have listened to music in the last three months.

Language  
of the last song  
listened to.  
2009-2014

Catalan Spanish Other

{ }

 

37   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Language use  
in education
 
Schoolchildren
 
There were 1,295,196 students enrolled in the public and private educational system in the academic

year of 2013-2014. There are 4,906 schools in Catalonia: 3,439 public and 1,467 private.

The language model for formal education in Catalonia is established on the basis of the language  
conjunction system that has received international recognition and guarantees that students will be  
fully conversant with both Catalan and Spanish when they complete their education.

During the 2013-2014 academic year, 164,877 foreign students were enrolled, representing  
12.7% of the total school population.

164,877  
foreign students enrolled  
during 2013-2014,  
12.7% of the total school

population

1,300,000

1,250,000

1,200,000

1,150,000

1,100,000

2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2013-2014

Students according  
to academic year.  
2008-2014

1,186,163

1,214,940

1,241,826

1,274,729

1,284,825 1,295,196

Source: Education statistics for the 2013-2014 academic year.

170,000

165,000

160,000

155,000

150,000

2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2013-2014

Evolution  
of foreign students.  
2008-2014

156,945 157,879

164,027 164,877

168,579 168,479

Source: Education statistics for the 2013-2014 academic year.

{ }

 

Language use in the classroom. 4th year of ESO 
The use of Catalan by teachers when addressing students in the classroom is over 80%: 61.1% always  
or almost always use it and 19.7% frequently use it. In second place, with 11.9%, are teachers who  
sometimes use it, followed by 7.4% who rarely, never or almost never use it.

Compared to 2006, the use of Catalan has increased as at that time frequent use was at 73.8%:  
63.6% used it always or almost always, and 10.2% used it often. In 2006, 12.4% of students said their  
teachers never used Catalan or did so very rarely.

The use of Catalan by students with their teachers in the classroom is slightly lower than the  
use of the language by teachers. However, in 2013 the most frequent use of Catalan by students  
with teachers was 75.3%: 53.9% used it always or almost always, and 21.4% used it often. 10.8% of  
students never used Catalan with their teachers in the classroom or did so very rarely.

Once again, in 2006 the use of Catalan by students with their teachers in the classroom was  
lower than in 2013: the percentage of students who always or almost always used Catalan with their  
teachers in the classroom was 64.5% while 24.1% never or very rarely used it.

These are the results of a survey of a sample of students who in 2013 were participants in the  
skills test survey for the fourth year of compulsory secondary education (ESO).

Just over 80%  
of teachers use Catalan  
always or almost always  
with students in the

classroom and 11.9%  
do so sometimes

100 %

90 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

100 %

90 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

Use of Catalan  
by teachers  
and students in  
the classroom.  
4th year of ESO.  
2006 and 2013

Use of Catalan  
by students with  
teachers in  
the classroom.  
4th year of ESO.  
2006 and 2013

Always or almost  
always

Often

Sometimes

Very rarely

Never or almost  
never

Source: Ministry of Education.  
Sociodemographic and  
linguistic survey of fourth year  
ESO students in Catalonia.  
2013.

63.6 %

13.8 %

10.2 %

10.5 %

1.9 %

2006

6,7

55.9 %

9.7 %

11.4 %

8.6 %

14.4 %

2006

61.1 %

11.9 %

19.7 %

4.6 % 
2.8 %

2013

53.9 %

13.8 %

21.4 %

6.6 %

4.2 %

2013

{ }

 

39   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Language usage of students with friends outside school. 4th year of ESO 
The same students who, in the classroom, use Catalan always or almost always do not use it with the  
same frequency with their friends outside school: 33.3% use it always or almost always while 14.7%  
use it often. 39.1% of students in the fourth year of ESO never or very rarely use it (12.9%).

48% of students in the fourth  
year of ESO use Catalan always,  
almost always or often with their  
friends outside school

100 %

90 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

Use of Catalan  
with friends outside  
school. 4th year of  
ESO 2006 and 2013

30.9 %

5.2 %

10.1 %

3.7 %

50.1 %

20.5 %

14.7 %

12.8 %

12.9 %

39.1 %

Source: Ministry of Education. Sociodemographic  
and linguistic survey of students in the fourth  
year of ESO in Catalonia. 2013.

2006 2013

{ }

Always or almost  
always

Often

Sometimes

Very rarely

Never or almost  
never

 

40   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Language use in university entrance examinations.

96.3% of high school students used Catalan in university entrance examinations (PAU), the highest  
percentage since 2007. Overall, 68,888 exams were held in Catalan and 2,659 in Spanish. By county,  
students in the Val d’Aran sat 86.4% of their exams in Catalan and 13.6% in Spanish. In 35 of the 41  
counties, the use of Catalan was higher than 96.3%.

96.3% of high school  
students used Catalan in  
their university entrance  
examinations

Use of Catalan  
and Spanish in PAU  
(university entrance  
exams). 2007-2014

Catalan Spanish

2007 2008 2009 2010 2014

100 %

90 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

94.5 %

5.5 %

93.9 % 94.3 % 95.3 % 96.3 %

6.1 % 5.7 % 4.7 % 3.7 %

Source: Comparative survey of the use of Catalan in PAU.  
Secretariat of Universities and Research.

{ }

 

In degree courses,  
the average use  
of Catalan has remained  
constant at over

75%

Language use in public universities    
The figures referring to language use in graduate and masters’ degree courses were obtained by  
extrapolation from the subjects whose teaching language is known; in other words 90% of all courses. 
Compared to degree courses, and analysing the variation in the last three years in relative terms,  
it can be seen that, on average, Catalan has remained constant in over 75% of cases, with slight  
fluctuations to around 76%.

With regard to other languages, and given the growing process of internationalization of Catalan  
universities, there has been a gradual but sustained increase in these languages, essentially English,  
which went from 7.3% in 2011-2012 to 9.1% in the 2013-2014 academic year. The internationalization  
of the Catalan university system is compatible with a model in which Catalan, as the native language,  
is also the language of Catalan universities.

Language use in degree courses. 2011-2014

100 %

90 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

Source: Secretariat for Universities and Research. 
UB UAB UPC UPF UdG UdL
weighted

average

URV

72.8

4.3

22.9

2013 
2014

72.5

13.6

13.9

2013 
2014

7.3

9.9

2013 
2014

52.2

20.2

2013 
2014

75.2

0.9

23.9

2011 
2012

72.5

13.7

13.8

2011 
2012

54.9

17.0

28.1

2011 
2012

91.3

1.9 
6.8

2011 
2012

71.8

5.2

23.0

2012 
2013

69.8

13.2

17.0

2012 
2013

73.2

5.3

21.5

2011 
2012

75.1

9.0

15.9

2012 
2013

55.8

16.8

27.4

2012 
2013

90.7

1.8 
7.5

2012 
2013

5.2

6.7

2013 
2014

88.1

8.7

8.6

2013 
2014

82.7

3.3

8.1

2013 
2014

88.6

6.8

11.0

2011 
2012

82.2

7.3

15.5

2011 
2012

77.2

4.1 
3.7

2011 
2012

92.2

7.0

8.6

2012 
2013

84.4

8.6

16.0

2012 
2013

75.4

9.1

14.4

2013 
2014

76.5

4.0 
3.9

2012 
2013

92.1

82.8

27.6

Catalan Spanish Other languages

{ }

 

42   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

With regard to language use on Masters’ courses, in which the impact of internationalization  
is higher due to the number of foreign students (which fluctuates around 30%), the participation  
of foreign lecturers and the duration of these courses (one year as a general rule), the use of other  
languages – essentially English – is significantly higher than that of degree courses.

Compared to the 2012-2013 academic year, in the 2013-2014 academic year there was a drop in  
other languages to the benefit of Spanish, which is due to the fact that there was a very high number  
of university students from Latin American countries. However, the use of Catalan has remained  
stable compared to the previous academic year.

The average  
use of Catalan  
in Masters’ courses is

56.8%

Language use in teaching Masters’ courses. 2011-2014

UB UAB UPC UPF UdG UdL weighted

average

URV

100 %

90 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

Source: Secretariat for Universities and Research.

Catalan Spanish Other languages

2011 
2012

62.0

16.1

21.9

2011 
2012

70.5

9.3

20.2

2012 
2013

70.2

13.3

16.5

2011 
2012

52.8

27.0

20.2

2011 
2012

34.8

39.3

25.9

2011 
2012

78.5

14.3

7.2

2013 
2014

55.8

10.8

33.4

2012 
2013

58.2

12.2

29.6

2013 
2014

61.1

19.4

19.5

2013 
2014

41.7

39.5

18.8

2012 
2013

44.4

39.4

16.2

2013 
2014

27.4

40.2

32.4

2012 
2013

32.9

37.3

29.8

2013 
2014

66.3

17.8

15.9

2012 
2013

73.2

15.0

11.8

2011 
2012

8.3

29.5

62.2

2011 
2012

18.4

20.3

61.3

2011 
2012

16.2

16.0

67.8

2013 
2014

19.3

11.1

69.6

2012 
2013

12.0

25.2

62.8

2013 
2014

17.0

26.2

56.8

2012 
2013

22.3

20.8

56.9

2013 
2014

10.3

29.1

60.6

2012 
2013

17.1

16.0

66.9

{ }

 

43   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Court rulings 
The use of Catalan in judicial rulings is around 12.2% and there has been a downward trend in terms  
of both absolute numbers and percentages since 2009.

The Justice  
Administration

The percentage  
of rulings in Catalan is

12.2%

Court rulings  
by language.  
2009-2014

2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

300,000

250,000

200,000

150,000

100,000

50,000

0 
39,974
 
16.0 %

210,563 
84.0 %

221,359 
85.5 %

230,305 
86.9 %

222,849 
87.3 %

217,543 
87.6 %

217,795 
87.8 %

37,645 
14.5 %

34,734 
13.1 %

32,479 
12.7 %

30,698 
12.4 %

30,354 
12.2 %

Catalan Spanish

Source: Ministry of Justice.

{ }

 

44   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Documentation used in property, commercial and real  
estate registries
 
The data reflect a very unequal panorama depending on the geographical region which ranges from  
the Berga Registry where the documentation presented in Catalan exceeds 66% to Registry No. 17 in  
Barcelona, where the documents presented in Catalan barely account for 1%.

In 2014, almost 17% of the documentation presented in a sampling of 23 Property Registries  
was in Catalan. The use of Catalan in the documentation submitted to Property Registries remained  
stable from 2010 to 2012, but from 2013 it started to drop slightly.

In general, the language in which documents are recorded corresponds to the language in  
which they are written.

Source: Autonomous Deanery of Registrars of Property  
and Commercial Registrars of Catalonia.

Documents presented  
in Catalan. 2014

Barcelona No. 10  12.41 %

Barcelona No. 17  0.03 %

Barcelona No. 2  14.83 %

Berga  66.83 %

Cambrils  4.28 %

L’Escala  21.08 %

Igualada No. 1  25.03 %

Igualada No. 2  11.95 %

Lleida No. 1  7.83 %

Lleida No. 4  4.44 %

Manresa No. 1  51.32 %

Manresa No. 2  27.11 %

Mataró No. 2  11.39 %

Barcelona Companies  4.37 %

Mont-roig  10.88 %

Reus No. 1  12.66 %

Reus No. 2  34.27 %

Roses No. 1  15.11 %

Tarragona No. 1  6.83 %

Terrassa No. 3 9.86 %

Tremp  11.17 %

Valls  23.16 %

Vilanova i la Geltrú No. 1  1.05 %

Average 16.9 %

30 %

25 %

20 %

15 %

10 %

5 %

0 %

2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

Documentation  
presented in Catalan.  
2009-2014

19.7 % 19.4 % 19.8 % 19.8 % 17.8 %

16.9 %

Source: Drawn up by the DGPL with data from the Deganat Autonòmic dels Registradors de la Propietat, Mercantil  
i de Béns Mobles (Autonomous Deanery of Registrars of Real Property, Trade and Personal Property Catalonia).

 

45   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

The use of Catalan in notarial documents 
The absolute number of official notary documents issued in Catalonia dropped slightly compared to  
2013 in both Catalan and Spanish. Part of this decline, with regard to Catalan, can be explained by the  
fact that a large proportion of notary documents are commercial or financial by nature, and the drop  
in the number of Catalan-owned financial institutions has meant that the clauses of contracts are  
written in Spanish, given that the head offices and legal departments are increasingly based in Spain.

9.4% of official  
notary documents were  
written in Catalan

Catalan

Notarial documents  
in Catalan.  
2010-2014

Spanish

Source: Notary Association of Catalonia.

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

1,200,000

1,000,000

800,000

600,000

400,000

200,000

0

11.7 %

11.2 % 11.0 %

9.4 % 9.4 %

88.3 %

88.8 % 89.0 % 90.6 % 90.6 %

110,507

96,102 94,166

82,152 79,828

832,494

762,297 758,637 788,083 762,846

943,001 858,399 852,803 870,235 842,674 TOTAL

{ }

 

46   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

While the total number of policies taken out in 2014 increased slightly, the use of Catalan has  
continued to drop (15.4%).

15.4%  
of commercial  
documentation  
is written

in Catalan

Catalan

Spanish

Commercial  
documents  
in Catalan.  
2010-2014

Source: Notary Association of Catalonia.

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

450,000

400,000

350,000

300,000

250,000

200,000

150,000

100,000

50,000

0

25.7 %

21.6 %

19.8 %

16.1 % 15.4 %

74.3 %

78.4 % 80.2 %

83.9 % 84.6 %

90,409

64,800

53,970

39,742 39,615

261,442

235,125 218,390

207,179 217,415

351,851 299,925 272,360 257,030 246,921 TOTAL

{ }

 

47   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Government action

T 
he main actions of the Language Policy have focused on promoting knowledge of Catalan, especially among the immigrant population, in schools as well as among adults; the provision of

tools and services to support language quality and learning, such as Optimot, Cercaterm, Parla.cat,  
Aula Mestra and automatic translation systems, and the use of the language between adults through  
Voluntariat per la llengua (Language Volunteering programme), programme, amongst others. 
In addition, the Language Policy focused on promoting the use of Catalan in particular sectors  
such as business, cinema, universities, youth, leisure and the legal system, and supporting projects  
promoted by other entities; supporting the official list of organizations that foster the Catalan language; dealing with citizens’ complaints about language rights and monitoring legislation; raising  
the profile of the language abroad through universities and Catalan communities in other countries;  
Collaborating with other Catalan-speaking regions and organizations within the Spanish state, and  
participating in European networks and associations.

Catalan sign language and Occitan have also been supported by the Language Policy.  
It is also worth noting that this year was the 25th anniversary of the constitution of the Consortium for Language Normalisation, the celebration of the Tercentenary and the availability of the  
initial results of the Population Survey on Language Use (EULP2013). 
The Consortium for Language Normalisation was established in 1989 as a result of the determination of the Catalan Government and numerous local bodies to increase the knowledge and use  
of the Catalan language throughout the territory of Catalonia. During the year various events were  
held at the 22 Language Normalisation centres which make up the network, rounded off by an institutional event organized by the Ministry of Culture. 
Over the past 25 years, the Consortium for Language Normalisation has achieved the following:

62,325 Catalan courses involving 1,535,965 students

81,689 language pairings

5,698 agreements with establishments and organizations on the VxL programme

9,461 language and cultural activities involving 214,100 participants

18,403 agreements signed with companies and other organizations

 

48   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

In 2014, the first results were published of the Survey of Language Use of the Public at Large 2013  
covering every regional sphere with statistical significance. In this respect, in terms of the evolution  
of language use, the Survey indicated that almost three million people who did not use Catalan as  
their native language now know how to speak it and that over 600,000 people use Catalan as their  
habitual language even though it was not their native language or the first language they learned.

Formal education

Schoolchildren

In the 2013-2014 academic year, there were 1,295,196 students enrolled in the public and private  
regulated school system. 
The language model for formal education in Catalonia is established on the basis of the language conjunction system that has received international recognition and guarantees that students  
will be fully conversant with both Catalan and Spanish when they complete their education.

There are 5,418 schools in Catalonia: 3,775 public and 1,643 private schools. There are 20  
schools that follow foreign educational systems: 9 of these teach in English, 5 in French, 3 in German, 2 in Italian and 1 in Japanese.

There were 164,877 foreign students enrolled in academic year 2014-2014. This year, the number of students in language reception classes was 8,850. 
96 community education plans were rolled out during the 2013-2014 academic year, divided  
among 76 municipalities and 885 schools and involving a total of 333,239 students (188,348 primary  
and 144,891 secondary).

Community education  
plans have reached

333,239  
students

Promotion  
of knowledge of  
Catalan

{ }

 

49   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

External evaluation of primary education

In 2014, the external assessment test was carried out at the end of primary education in 2,182 schools,  
involving a total of 70,566 children in the sixth year of primary education. 
The results have revealed four levels of competence: high (very good standard), medium-high  
(good), medium-low (acceptable) and low (no proficiency achieved).

Around 60% of primary school students had achieved good language proficiency: almost 25% of  
the students achieved a high standard in all the languages assessed and almost 37% achieved a medium-high proficiency in Catalan and Spanish. In English, 36.9% of students achieved medium-high  
proficiency, with 35% in French.

The Catalan education system provides equal knowledge of both the Catalan and Spanish languages through to the end of primary school education.

The Catalan educational  
system provides an

equivalent  
level of knowledge of both  
Catalan and Spanish

Percentage of  
students at each level  
of skills achievement.  
6th year of primary

Low

Medium-to-low

Medium-to-high

High

100 % 50 % 90 % 40 % 80 % 30 % 70 % 20 % 60 % 10 % 0 %

14.6 %

15.2 %

15.4 %

17.2 %

36.9 %

37.5 %

35.0 %

38.1 %

25.0 %

23.8 %

22.6 %

24.5 %

23.5 %

23.5 %

14.5 %

14.2 %

38.2 %

37.8 %

24.8 %

24.4 %

22.5 %

23.6 %

Catalan language 2013  
(64,467 students)

Catalan language 2014  
(65,767 students)

French language 2014  
(311 students)

French language 2013  
(305 students)

Spanish language 2014  
(66,041 students)

Spanish language 2013  
(64,640 students)

English language 2014  
(65,766 students)

English language 2013  
(64,444 students)

15.9 %

19.0 %

36.9 %

33.8 %

27.3 %

24.7 %

19.9 %

22.5 %

27.0 %

20.2 %

Source: System of Educational Indicators in Catalonia, 2013-2014 Higher Council for Evaluation of the Education System.

{ }

 

50   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

External evaluation of secondary schools 
The final external ESO examination involved 60,566 students in both public and private schools in  
Catalonia. 
74.8% of secondary school students achieved a high (30.6%) or medium-high level (44.2%)  
of Catalan and 75.1% of students achieved a high (27.3%) or medium-high (47.8%) level of Spanish.

In 2014 changes were introduced to the English and French tests to adapt them to the levels of  
proficiency established in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (MECR).  
Thus in English, 59.1% of students achieved a high (34.4%) or medium-high (24.7%) level. In French,  
79.2% of students who did a French course achieved a high (36.2%) or medium-high level (43%).

Percentage of  
students at each level  
of skills achievement.  
4th year of ESO

Source: System of Educational Indicators in Catalonia, 2013-2014 Higher Council for Evaluation of the Education System.

100 % 50 % 90 % 40 % 80 % 30 % 70 % 20 % 60 % 10 % 0 %

Catalan language 2013  
(56,001 students)

Catalan language 2014  
(56,324 students)

French language 2014  
(293 students)

French language 2013  
(308 students)

Spanish language 2014  
(56,074 students)

Spanish language 2013  
(56,158 students)

English language 2014  
(56,002 students)

English language 2013  
(55,715 students

10.2 %

11.0 %

9.9 %

11.3 %

20.0 %

20.2 %

7.8 %

6.7 %

44.2 %

44.2 %

47.8 %

46.6 %

34.4 %

30.8 %

36.2 %

36.4 %

30.6 %

29.5 %

27.3 %

26.4 %

24.7 %

32.4 %

43.0 %

44.2 %

15.0 %

15.3 %

15.0 %

15.7 %

20.9 %

16.6 %

13.0 %

12.7 %

Low

Medium-to-low

Medium-to-high

High

Almost 75%  
of secondary school  
students achieved a

high or medium 
high level in Catalan  
and Spanish
{ }

 

51   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Higher Education 
The university language policy fosters actions geared towards guaranteeing the presence of Catalan  
in the university community in Catalonia and promoting its use among the teaching staff, students,  
and administration and services personnel.

INTERLINGUA grants

The purpose of INTERLINGUA is to award grants to Catalan universities for initiatives that promote  
the use of languages in universities. The call for projects maintains a balance between guaranteeing  
the presence of Catalan, the native and vehicular language of Catalan universities – and to promote  
the use of English – and other foreign languages – as a language of communication and work in an  
increasingly internationalized academic context, with a proportion of adjudication that has been  
established at round 50% for each of the language blocks in the three multilingual editions that have  
been held thus far.

Projects in Catalan

Projects in other  
languages

Mixed projects

Languages  
of projects  
submitted to   
INTERLINGUA
110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

2012 2013 2014

108

98

109

81

106 104

58

62

90

Source: Secretariat of Universities and Research.

 

52   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Most noteworthy subsidised actions:

Interuniversity Certificate in English (CLUC), with the inclusion of new items and two examinations (February and November). Interuniversity examinations have also been prepared for level  
B2 of English, French, German and Italian, the first of which is envisaged for 2015.

Development of resources for language support and the organization of activities to facilitate  
the autonomy of the university community in acquiring and improving communication skills:  
automatic translation systems, style manuals, language and terminology consultants, correction programmes, virtual language training spaces, open mass-participation online courses,  
etc. for Catalan as well as other languages.

Language and cultural reception projects for international students and teachers. In 2014, 1,815  
language exchange pairs were established and 5,533 students took part in language reception  
and cultural activities.

Virtual Catalan learning courses via the Parla.cat portal aimed at students on mobility programmes. In the 2013-2014 academic year, 119 courses with tutors were held, involving 1,042 students, and 13 specific courses were held via Aula Mestra (Master Class) for a total of 707 students.

Indications for  
the INTERLINGUA  
grants

7,000

6,000

5,000

4,000

3,000

2,000

1,000

0

number of teaching  
materials and research  
written or corrected  
in catalan

number of teaching  
and research materials  
written or corrected  
in other languages

language pairs  
(exchange and volunteers) 
participants in language  
reception activities

984

2012 2012 2012 2012 2013 2013 2013 2013 2014 2014 2014 2014

323

1,689

6,022

920 943

1,815

5,533

1,024 988

1,717

5,960

Source: Secretariat of Universities and Research.

Some 1,815

language  
exchange pairs
 
were formed and

5,533 students  
took part in language  
reception and cultural  
activities


}

 

53   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Comprehensive management of the multilingual platform INTERCAT

INTERCAT is a set of electronic resources for introducing the Catalan language and culture and is  
mainly directed at students on mobility programmes who are visiting our universities. 
In 2014, 125,789 users logged on, which represents the highest number of connections since  
the platform was created, with a total of 383,804 pages visited (32% more than the previous year).

A total of 86 queries from users were resolved and 150 actions were advertised to boost linguistic and cultural acceptance.

Agreement between the Generalitat of Catalonia and the universities  
that form part of the Interuniversity Commission for Language Courses  
and Certifications of Catalonia

In 2014 the third agreement was signed between the Generalitat, through the Ministry of Economy  
and Knowledge and the Ministry of Culture, and the universities that form part of the Interuniversity Commission of Linguistic Training and Accreditation (CIFALC) to promote and guarantee  
the teaching and accreditation of languages in universities. The aim of this agreement is to facilitate interuniversity work in the teaching, evaluation and accreditation of language courses. The  
actions deriving from the agreement are based on the European Common Framework of Reference  
for Languages and are geared towards unifying educational programmes in different languages by  
establishing common criteria for course syllabuses, the preparation of unified examinations to obtain certificates of language knowledge, the training of teachers, invigilators and examiners, and the  
remuneration for the tasks of each activity.

In the 2013-2014 academic year, 5,754 students followed Catalan courses organized by CIFALC universities, of whom 2,618 sat examinations and 2,101 obtained proficiency qualifications.

Of all the students on Catalan courses, 3,746 (65.1%) were from the rest of Spain or abroad  
and, of these, 1,239 passed the examinations.

5,754 students followed the  
Catalan courses organized by the universities
{ }

 

54   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

The development of these indicators over the last three years shows that the number of students who have followed some kind of Catalan course, sat exams organized by CIFALC and subsequently passed those exams has remained stable, whether this is taken as the total number  
of students or the subset of students from outside Catalonia. On all three courses, the percentage of  
foreign students who followed Catalan courses was an average of around 22.5%, with a very slight  
increase (21.9% in 2011-2012 and 22.7% in 2013-2014).

Progress in the  
number of students  
who followed  
Catalan courses  
and sat Catalan  
exams between  
2011-2012  
and 2013-2014

6,000

5,000

4,000

3,000

2,000

1,000

0

course  
attendees

course  
attendees

course  
attendees

sat cifalc  
exams

sat cifalc  
exams

sat cifalc  
exams

passed passed passed

5,754

3,746

Total Foreigners

5,448

3,465

Total Foreigners

5,535

3,556

Total Foreigners

2,618

1,412

Total Foreigners

2,572

1,832

Total Foreigners

2,494

1,224

Total Foreigners

1,239

2,101

Total Foreigners

1,265

1,882

Total Foreigners

1,126

2,051

Total Foreigners

Year 2013 - 2014 academic year 2011 - 2012 academic year 2012-2013 academic year

Source: Secretariat for Universities and Research.

 

55   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Mobile app of the Guies de conversa universitària (University Conversation Guides)

This interactive app for mobile phones is a language resource that helps in various situations university students might find themselves in, especially in the case of mobility programme students  
arriving in Catalonia or local students going to study at a foreign university. In 2012, the year the  
app was launched, it provided combinations between Catalan, Spanish, French and English, and in  
August 2013 this was extended by three other languages (German, Portuguese and Italian). In August  
2014 a further two languages were added (Russian and Chinese) along with Occitan in December  
which, along with the results of the dissemination activities undertaken, resulted in a big increase in  
the number of downloads: in 2014, there were 16,898 downloads, representing an increase of 38.6%  
compared to 2013.

Teaching Catalan to adults 
Adult education includes teaching activities that enable adults to develop skills, enrich their knowledge and improve their technical or professional qualifications. This means that they involve people with very different objectives, which might range from getting a qualification to updating or  
expanding their knowledge.

Teaching of Catalan to adults in the official centres run  
by the Ministry of Education

The Ministry of Education offers Catalan language adult education courses.

In the 2013-2014 academic year, 8,451 people followed Catalan language courses at official  
adult education centres.

904 people followed Catalan courses for non-Catalan speakers in official language schools,  
from beginners through to the highest level, C2.

8,451 Catalan students  
at official
adult education centres { }

 

56   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Catalan education for adults through the Consortium for Language Normalisation

The Consortium for Language Normalisation (CPNL), which is made up of the Generalitat and 135  
local bodies, provides Catalan language education across the whole of Catalonia through 22 language normalisation centres. In 2014, 3,229 courses were organized at 155 locations, with 67,465  
people signed up.

The general courses follow the programmes of the Directorate General of Language Policy, in  
accordance with the provisions of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages,  
and are structured into six levels, from beginner for those who have no knowledge of Catalan at all  
through to advanced, which accredits fluency in the language.

The Catalan language teaching offered by the CPNL can be followed by different learning options: attendance-based classes, distance learning, online courses via Parla.cat, and other options.  
Enrolments for attendance-based classes accounted for 95% of the total and the other options accounted for 5%.

level enrolments

Beginners (A1)  7,703

Basic (A2)  30,712

Elementary (B1)  7,018

Intermediate (B2)  8,885

Proficient (C1)  8,024

Advanced (C2)  1,747

Complementary and Specific  3,376

TOTAL  67,465

Source: Consortium for Language Normalisation

Registrations for  
CPNL adult education  
courses in Catalan.  
2011-2014

2011

120,000

110,000

100,000

90,000

80,000

70,000

60,000

50,000

40,000

30,000

20,000

10,000

0

2012 2013 2014

105,166

98,444

78,790

67,465

Source: Consortium for Language Normalisation. Consortium-organised

Catalan courses held in

155 locations { }

3,229 CPNL courses  
with
67,465

students  
enrolled
{ }

 

57   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Education for new arrivals

More than half of enrolments for CPNL courses were for those that play an essential role in helping  
new immigrants to settle in, i.e. the beginners’ and basic courses. In 2014, 32,309 foreign students  
signed up for the beginners’ and basic courses. 61% of the people who signed up for the courses as  
a whole were born abroad.

The CPNL organises Catalan language courses aimed specifically at immigrants’ associations.  
In 2014, 242 courses were organized for immigrant communities, reaching 5,607 students. These 242  
courses included 22 courses of workplace reinsertion programme.

22 courses on the Programa de reincorporació al treball (Work Insertion Programme), which  
gives students the necessary job skills to join the labour market, including local knowledge  
and knowledge of the Catalan Language. In 2014, 362 people enrolled for these courses.

12 courses organized by the Directorate General for Immigration, divided into three modules:  
Catalan and its context (65 hours), occupational training and practical experience in companies in the chosen labour sector, with 191 students signed up.

Literacy courses in Catalan for adults of foreign origin who are unable to read or write and  
find it difficult to attend the usual adult education centres and classes. The aim is to help  
them to reach the minimum level to be able to follow the CPNL’s beginners’ courses. Some 17  
literacy courses were held with a total of 356 people enrolled.

400

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

2012 2013 2014

Courses aimed  
at immigrants’  
associations.  
2012-2014

Students

Courses

10,000

9,000

8,000

7,000

6,000

5,000

4,000

3,000

2,000

1,000

240 242

251

5,863 6,485 5,607

Source: Consortium for Language Normalisation.

32,309 foreign  
students on beginners’  
and basic courses
{ }

362 students  
on the regrouping and  
occupational programme
{ }

242 courses for  
the
immigrant

community with  
5,607 students
{ }

 

58   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

In 2013, the Directorate General of Language Policy and the Consortium for Language Normalisation set up the Llegiu I Parleu (Read and Speak) programme to create resources for the adult population and strengthen Catalan language learning through reading. It has educational material on  
Llegir per Parlar, Llegir per Aprendre
(Read to Speak, Read to Learn). In 2014, new resources were published to encourage adults in general, people already learning the language, participants in the Voluntariat per la llengua programme and reading clubs to read and hence learn the Catalan language.

Parla.cat

There has been an increase in the number of users of Parla.cat, a virtual space that gives everybody  
access to Catalan courses and educational material. A total of 26,147 new users signed up to Parla. 
cat in 2014. The cumulative total as of 31 December 2014 was 183,325 registered users. There were a  
total of 42,368 enrolments for online courses. This figure includes students who follow online courses as well as those who opt for the tutored module, which is followed by 2,577 students.

These students are mainly referred by the Consortium for Language Normalisation and Catalan universities. In 2014 it organized 413 courses with tutorials. 
There were 39,791 enrolments on the free learning module: 26,980 at a basic level, 4,778 at an  
elementary level, 3,668 at an intermediate level and 4,365 at a proficiency level.

In order to supplement this Catalan language learning, students and teachers have the chance  
to use the search engine for language learning where they can find dictation online, dictionaries and  
games. In 2014 there were a total of 56,353 queries.

2008 2009 2010 2012 2013 2014 2011

Users of Parla. 
cat. Total new and  
cumulative users.  
2008-2014

200,000

150,000

100,000

50,000

0

10,097

37,442

27,345

10,097

38,739

24,768

29,464 28,404 26,147

76,181

100,949

130,413

158,817

183,325

Cumulative total

New users

Source: General Directorate for Language Policy.

A total of 42,368

people signed  
up for online courses with

Parla.cat  
in 2014
{ }

413 courses  
with tutorials
{ }

 

59   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Aula Mestra

Aula Mestra is a virtual space for teaching and learning Catalan associated with Parla.cat. It allows  
Catalan teachers worldwide to create, manage and share online courses.  
Aula Mestra’s courses have eight different categories corresponding to the six levels of general  
language learning, one in specialized language, one on information for teachers plus a category of  
courses at language normalisation centres which use the platform as part of its online training.

It has a search engines with more than 3,000 activities that facilitate the creation of new courses or which can be used directly by learners to practice particular aspects of the language.

In 2014 the platform received 98,826 visits. 
Some 91 courses were set up with 1,349 registered students. 
It offers both general and specialized language courses: Public Administration language, legal  
language, etc. It also features various collectives: Servei Lingüístic de l’Àmbit Judicial (Lan-

guage Service of the Judiciary), foreign universities (Xarxa Llull), Catalan universities, the collective of parents of families that live abroad, etc.

63 teachers have used this virtual space to pursue their educational activities.

Occupational and business training

The actions of the Consortium for Language Normalisation are also enshrined in the Government’s  
employment and labour policies. Along these lines, the following actions have been undertaken this  
year:

Organization of 61 Catalan courses in collaboration with the Catalan Employment Service  
(SOC), with 1,064 registered users. In 2014 courses were offered in the beginners’, Basic 1,  
Basic 2, Basic 3 and Elementary 1 categories. The 2014 project reached 37 municipalities with  
the involvement and coordination of 19 language normalisation centres and 49 employment  
offices of the Catalan Government.

Training for companies and organizations in various sectors and advice and resources for  
working in Catalan. In 2014, 43 courses were organized for which 632 people signed up.

1,465 people from the restaurant sector signed up for general CPNL courses.

61 Catalan  
courses
with 1,064  
occupational training  
students
{ }

3,000

activities for  
creating courses
{ }

91 specific  
new courses
 
for Aula Mestra  
with 1,349 students
{ }

1,465 students from the  
restaurant sector on Catalan courses
{ }

 

60   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Training in the Public Administration

The Consortium for Language Normalisation collaborates with public administrations in providing  
advice and organising online courses. In 2014 the following actions were carried out:

17 Catalan courses were organized for local administration personnel, with 249 students. In  
order to give them more linguistic independence, language assessment was also offered. In  
2014, 75 sessions of Internet Resources for working in Catalan were held.

18 Catalan courses have been organised for Public Administration and Tax Office staff through  
the Parla.cat platform, with a total of 193 students from every Catalan province, ranging from  
beginners through to advanced levels.

The CPNL coordinated a Catalan course for SEM personnel (Emergency Medical Systems).

The Ministry of Health, through the different organizations it comprises, offered training in  
Catalan for professionals working in the health sector:

The Catalan Institute of Health organized 14 Catalan training courses (writing up documents,  
grammar and specific terminology) for 75 healthcare professionals working in different hospitals in Catalonia.

6 courses/workshops on the Catalan language for staff working in the Ministry of Health, for  
which a total of 102 people signed up.

The Catalan Public Health Agency organized 4 sessions on Catalan for staff in the Camp de  
Tarragona Health Region, which were attended by 48 people.

 

61   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

T 
he Directorate General for Language Policy (DGPL), the Consortium for Language Normalisation (CPNL), the Ramon Llull Institute and the Public Administration School of Catalonia,

amongst other public bodies, certify knowledge of Catalan by the adult population in accordance  
with the Common European Framework for Languages. 
In 2014, 22,175 people enrolled for the Catalan competency certificates and 14,231 people accredited their knowledge of Catalan.

The 14,231 people who obtained a certificate represented 64% of the total number of people  
who sat the exams.

The Consortium for Language Normalisation issued 11,367 certificates, standardized with  
those of the Directorate General of Language Policy, for the different levels, 30% of which  
were for the Basic level.

In 2014 the Ramon Llull Institute organized the twelfth examination session for certificates of  
Catalan knowledge outside the linguistic sphere in 72 locations in 28 countries, an increase  
of 10% compared to the previous year (67). Some 973 people registered for the exam and 688  
obtained the certificate which represents a success level of 80.56%.

The advanced level of Catalan, C2, received the highest number of applicants for the examination held by the Directorate General for Language Policy.

Certification  
of Catalan  
knowledge

Enrolled

Sat

Passed

Catalan certificates.  
2014

25,000

20,000

15,000

10,000

5,000

0

DGPL CPNL IRL TOTAL

4,660

16,542

973

22,175

2,176

11,367

688

14,231

3,383

13,401

854

17,638

Source: Report on certificates of knowledge of Catalan. General Directorate for Language Policy.

14,231 people  
obtained a certificate  
of Catalan competency  
in 2014
{ }

 

62   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Since 2002 a total of 459,206 people have applied to take Catalan exams, 333,348 people actually sat them and 247,964 proficiency certificates have been issued. 
In 2014, the Basic (A2), Intermediate (B2) and Proficient (C1) certificates showed the biggest  
drop compared to those issued in 2010. The elementary (B1) certificate has remained stable. It is  
worth highlighting the increase of almost 50% in the number of certificates issued for the advanced  
level (C2): from 1,560 in 2013 to 2,327 in 2014.

Since 2002,

247,964  
certificates
 
have been issued

A2-Basic B1-Elementary C1-Proficient B2-Intermediate C2-Advanced

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2014 2013

Certificates by level. 2002-2014

9,000

8,000

7,000

6,000

5,000

4,000

3,000

2,000

1,000

0 637

1,103

2,148

5,622 5,766

7,890

5,028

3,681

1,560

2,106

7,121

2,930

2,032

7,110

3,981 3,852

3,041 
2,878 
2,327

2,133

4,424

2,241

980

4,720

5,222

Source: Report on certificates of knowledge of Catalan. 
General Directorate for Language Policy.

{ }

 

63   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Optimot and automatic translation tools 
The General Directorate for Language Policy has developed online language services which are  
available to the general public and companies to facilitate the use of Catalan.

Optimot, the language consultancy service, received 12,242,424 queries in 2014 via the search  
engine and a further 5,337 queries through its personalized service desk.

The internal automatic translator of the Administration of the Generalitat of Catalonia has  
translated 36,166,570 words and answered 363,265 translation requests. The main direction  
of translation is Catalan -> Spanish.

The automatic Catalan-Occitan translator has translated 9,623,725 words and dealt with  
208,077 service queries.

Tools  
and services  
for language  
quality

Users of the personalized customer service  
of Optimot. 2014 
Queries dealt with by the Optimot search engine. 2011-2014

Source: General Directorate for Language Policy.

Source: General Directorate for Language Policy.

Non-registered  
users 5%

Administration  
and public  
bodies 21%

Companies  
and self-employed  
professionals 30%

Individuals  
44%

2011

14,000,000

12,000,000

10,000,000

8,000,000

6,000,000

4,000,000

2,000,000

0

2012 2013 2014

9,815,691

11,298,206

11,232,990

12,242,424

12,242,424  
searches on

Optimot,  
the online language  
consultancy service

}

 

64   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

TERMCAT 
In 2014, the Terminology Centre standardized 316 terms in the 16 ordinary meetings of its Supervisory Council in areas such as clinical research, digital marketing and elections.

Some 316 new terms  
were approved in 2014

Standardized terms.  
2014

Music. 20%

Sports.  
Performance arts.  
24%

Computers.

Telecommunications. 2% 
Industry.  
Energy. 2%

Economy.  
Business. 16%

Mathematics. Physics.  
Chemistry. 7%

Politics. 7%

Information. Documentation.  
Communications. 6%

Food. Beverages. 5%

Life sciences. 5%

Health sciences. 3%

Agriculture. Livestock.  
Forestry. 3%

{ }

Source: TERMCAT, the Terminology Centre.

 

65 terminology projects were drawn up with the participation of TERMCAT. Of these, 26 were  
published: Diccionari de recerca clínica (Dictionary of Clinical Research), Terminologia bàsica  
dels dispositius mòbils
(Basic Mobile Device Terminology), Terminologia bàsica de l’administració electrònica i els processos (Basic Electronic Administration and Processes Terminology) and  
Terminologia de màrqueting digital
(Digital Marketing Terminology), amongst others.

It started a new collective of descriptive dictionaries with volumes of Noms de plantes (Plant  
Names),
Corpus de fitonímia catalana (Corpus of Catalan Phytonomy) and Noms de mamífers  
marins
(Marine Mammal Names).

It published 17 new online dictionaries: Diccionari de dret administratiu (Dictionary of Administrative Law), Diccionari d’anatomia (Dictionary of the Anatomy), Diccionari de criteris terminològics (Dictionary of Terminological Criteria), Diccionari de les tecnologies del so i de la música  
(Dictionary of Sound and Music Technologies) and
Diccionari de màrqueting digital (Dictionary  
of Digital Marketing), amongst others.

It resolved 1,830 terminology queries via the personalized attention service.

Breakdown  
of terminology  
queries by sector.  
2014

600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

Language professionals

Generalitat of Catalonia

Optimot

Universities and other  
educational centres

Companies

Local administration

Different institutions

The media

Other administrations

527

384

288

265

137

81

59

48

41

More than 80 online  
dictionaries available
{ }

Source: TERMCAT, the Terminology Centre.

 

66   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

During 2014, TERMCAT established 19 collaboration agreements with other organizations to  
undertake, disseminate and check terminology data and projects. It also signed eight agreements to  
conduct academic practices for students at the centre.

  The agreements signed with regard to drawing up dictionaries include an alliance with the  
Ministry of Culture of the Government of Andorra for a
Diccionari de relacions internacionals (Dictionary of International Relations) which will provide around a thousand terms with definitions in  
Catalan and their equivalents in Spanish, French and English.

It also signed agreements with the Ministry of Health for projects related to updating and disseminating the Diccionari enciclopèdic de medicina (Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Medicine), and  
with the Ministry of Justice to draw up and disseminate the
Diccionari de la mediació (Dictionary of  
Mediation).

In the university sector, TERMCAT has signed agreements to host researchers and students of  
language disciplines with research centres and university institutions in Catalonia, Spain and internationally. This offer of applied training in terminology used in the working world helps to train  
future professionals whose work will entail the continuous use of this terminology, such as translators and proof-readers, and strengthens ongoing collaboration with academic institutions on the  
subject of terminology.

Sworn translation and interpreting 
In 2014, 20 people – with a total of 26 qualifications – joined the Generalitat of Catalonia Registry of  
Sworn Translators and Interpreters which is managed by the General Directorate of Language Policy.  
The Registry consists of 1,401 professionals with a total of 2,339 registered qualifications. The  
working languages of these professionals are: Catalan, Spanish, English, German, French, Italian,  
Arabic, Russian and Chinese.

1,401 people on the Registry of Legal Translators  
and Interpreters with a total of
2,339 qualifications { }

 

67   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Voluntariat per la llengua (Language Volunteering) 
In 2014, 10,189 language pairs were created in 195 towns involving a total of 10,831 participants:  
6,291 learners and 4,540 volunteers who provide conversational practice in Catalan for people who  
want to improve their fluency and confidence in the language.

In 2014, the Voluntariat per la llengua was programme was extended to the sphere of functional  
diversity with the collaboration of organizations that look after people with mental disabilities, involving a total of 63 language pairs, with a very positive outcome.

It was also extended to the sphere of religious diversity with an initial experience involving  
interreligious pairings in Lloret de Mar. 
The programme has continued to support primary and secondary schools by implementing  
a language pairing model for younger students, with an increase of 30% in the number of pairs  
formed. In 2014, 402 language pairs were formed at 18 institutes and eight schools.

Fostering  
the use  
of Catalan

Source: General Directorate for Language Policy.

Number  
of language pairs. 
2003-2014
12,000

10,000

8,000

6,000

4,000

2,000

0

2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

4,600

1,522

3,800

4,496

6,310

9,437

10,128

2011 2010 2009

10,510 10,555

2013 2014 2012

10,129 10,208 10,189

More than 90,000  
language pairs in the last  
11 years
{ }

 

68   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

The people involved in the programme also took part in numerous cultural activities and in a  
network of collaborating establishments and organizations that hosted them and facilitated knowledge of the environment. The collaborating establishments undertake to foster the use of Catalan in  
dealing with the general public.

In 2014, 1,771 activities were held to promote the programme, with 61,994 participants. 
Some 820 organizations and 3,867 commercial establishments offered their support. 
From the start of the programme, a total of 91,884 language pairs have been formed.

1,771 activities  
with
61,994  
participants
{ }

4,687 collaborating  
establishments and  
organizations
{ }

Learners signed  
up to the Language  
Volunteering  
programme  
according to origin.  
2014

Oceania  
4 (0.2%)

North Africa  
470 (19.2%)

USA and Canada  
24 (1.0%)

Non-EU Europe  
123 (5%)

Asia  
111 (4.5%)

Rest of Africa  
183 (7.5%)

European Union  
392 (16.0%)

Central America,  
Mexico and the  
Caribbean 301 (12.3%)

South America  
844 (34.4%)

Source: General Directorate for Language Policy.

 

69   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Cinema 
The Government has helped to improve the offering of cinema in Catalan and promote demand for  
it. To increase the offering, the following actions have been undertaken:

Support for the dubbing and subtitling of films in Catalan and continuation of the cultural  
policies to boost the production of films in Catalan.

Support for subtitling in Catalan at all the festivals of the Deputy Coordinator of Film Festivals  
and the Occitan Cinema Exhibition.

Continuity and expansion of the Children’s Films in Catalan season, CINC. 
Dubbing and subtitling in Catalan of programmes on the channels of Televisió de Catalunya  
(TVC).

Extension of subtitling to television platforms.

The outcome of these actions has been the following:

A total of 49 feature films were released: 22 dubbed and 27 subtitled in Catalan. 
The number of viewers of films in Catalan (original, dubbed and subtitled) came to 375,868  
of whom 306,895 were viewers of dubbed and subtitled films.

The number of viewers of the CINC Children’s Films in Catalan CINC season was 52,945 and  
they were shown in 38 locations.

Thanks to the collaboration agreement with Catalunya Film Festivals, 20 Catalan festivals  
subtitled 564 films (128 feature films and 436 shorts) in Catalan.

«El Documental del mes» series subtitled its programme in Catalan with the support of the  
General Directorate of Language Policy, and was shown in 32 cinemas in Catalonia (54.23%).  
15,668 viewers (29.36%) saw the nine documentaries screened in their original version subtitled in Catalan (VOSC).

In 2014 an agreement was signed between the Ministry of Culture and CANAL+ to subtitle  
in Catalan more than 148 new film releases and 17 fictional series for this season. All this  
content represents more than 250 hours of cinema subtitled in Catalan between April and  
December 2014. The subtitled products are available on CANAL+ (by satellite) and on Yomvi  
(pay-per-view) in Catalonia and the rest of Spain.

 agreement

 April 2014 December 2014

films 85 148

series  10 17

148 films and 17 series subtitled  
in Catalan on
Canal+ plus 40  
films subtitled in Catalan at

Texas Cinemas { }

444,481 viewers  
of cinema in Catalan
{ }

 

70   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

In the first few months of the agreement, 58% of subscribers in Catalonia, the Valencian Community and the Balearic Islands learned about the service and, of these, 15% used it regularly. The  
figures for Catalonia show a good level of viewing films subtitled in Catalan, reaching 21%.

In 2014, the Ministry of Culture signed a collaboration agreement with the company that  
manages Texas Cinemas to increase the supply and viewing figures of films subtitled in Catalan. Texas Cinemas screen re-released films in their original version with Catalan subtitles  
and children’s films dubbed into Catalan. In 2014 it screened 40 films with Catalan subtitles  
which were seen by 33,802 cinemagoers between 18 September and 31 December.

TVC dubbed 1,146 hours of programming into Catalan: 
—  90 hours of films.

— 377 hours of series.

— 472 hours of documentaries.

— 207 hours of animation.

111 DVD titles were edited: 90 with the audio and subtitles in Catalan and 21 with just the  
audio in Catalan.

TVC granted 548 hours of dubbing to other television service providers: 240 hours to 8tv, 296  
hours to BTV and 11 hours to other stations (10 to Andorra TV/RTVA and one to XTVL). It also  
granted 66 hours to private producers and exhibitors.

To strengthen demand, the following advertising and promotional actions have been undertaken:

Re-launch of the Cinema in Catalan portal featuring the offering of regional production in  
Catalan and dubbed and subtitled films:

—  Programming by films and by cinemas, towns and counties.

— The main Catalan film festivals with films dubbed or subtitled in Catalan and the programme of the Children’s Films in Catalan season in Catalonia (CINC).

— Trailers and spots of films dubbed or subtitled in Catalan.

—  Supplementary information featured by websites such as Catalan Cinema Academy and  
the Film Library of Catalonia.

«The best documentaries in Catalan» features the range of documentary DVDs subtitled in Catalan. Every week a documentary is broadcast on the «Llengua catalana» (Catalan Language) website  
and via Facebook and Twitter.

«Cinema in Catalan» page on Facebook, including the list of new releases and screenings,  
plus a Twitter account. In 2014 it had 9,622 followers on Facebook.

 

71   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Catalan and business 
To encourage the use of Catalan in companies, the General Directorate for Language Policy has provided support in the form of grants or subsidies to:

  11 business organizations to develop 13 projects to increase the presence of Catalan in their  
respective spheres.

—  Barcelona Association of Night Clubs: informative campaign on «Recursos del català per a  
l’oci nocturn» (Catalan Resources for Nightclubs) and an awareness-raising campaign «El  
català a l’oci nocturn» (Catalan and Nightlife).

— The «Fondo Comerç» Association of Shopkeepers and Professionals: «Sant Jordi. Els sabors  
del món» (Sant Jordi. The flavours of the world).

—  Association of Young Entrepreneurs of Girona: «Eina per a les empreses» (Tool for companies) (a free app open to all users).

—  Independent Association of Young Entrepreneurs of Catalonia: «Reconeixement a la Qualitat Lingüística Empresarial» (Recognition of the Quality of Business Catalan).

— Trade Confederation of Catalonia; «Oberts al Català» (Open to Catalan) campaign.

— Shopkeepers’ Association of Ca n’Aurell: «Joc de paraules» (Word Games).

—  Shopkeepers’ Association of Eix Terrassa Nord: a language competition aimed at associated  
retailers and schools as part of the Language Volunteering programme.

—  CECOT Foundation Training. «El català a l’empresa: una qüestió de responsabilitat» (Catalan in companies: a matter of responsibility).

— PIMEC Private Foundation. «Marca’t en català» (Brand it in Catalan).

—  Hotel and Tourism Trade Association of Alt Penedès: «L’hora del cafè» (Coffee Time) and  
«Siusplaucat» (Catalan Please).

31 companies for 16 mobile app projects, 12 programming projects and 3 dissemination projects. 
— Manduca Games, SL: incorporation of Catalan into 10 games for mobile devices.

— Enterprise Consulting & Training: Level C Trivial app for iPhones.

—  Aplicacions Digitals, SCP (ApDig): audioguide app to well-known monuments in Catalonia  
using GPS.

—  Nanu, Irina Roxana: multimedia pronunciation guide JoJaParlo (available on the internet  
and as an app for iOS and Android).

—  Baobab Interactive, La Factoria Interactiva, SL: El gran atles del món (The Great Atlas of the  
World) app. (atlas in the form of a game for kids and teens). 
—  Barcelona Multimèdia, SL:
Les aventures de Noemí i el Pilot (The Adventures of Noemí and  
the Pilot) (new Otijocs, 8 apps). 
—  Planet Factory Interactive, SL:
Planet Apps (10 apps for iOS and Android for children aged

2-8).

{ }

Support for 11

business  
organizations
,  
31 companies and  
3 trade unions to promote

Catalan in their  
respective fields

 

72   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

— Btripple 2012, SL: Ninus (an educational project for children).

—  Flor Edicions, SL: Civitas Barcelona (an app for disseminating the history, culture and  
gastronomy of Barcelona).

—  Ocisport Bussines, SL: Smart Catalunya (an app and website for learning Catalan and  
interacting with the region).

—  Atlantis IT, SL: MotoGPS/cotxeGPS (an app for locating vehicles by GPS) and OnEts (social  
network for GPS location).

—  Editorial de Música Boileau, SL: Enric Granados, un gran músic català a l’abast de tothom  
(Enric Granados, a great Catalan musician available to all) (an app for iOS).

—  Edicions Additio, SL: Additio. Quadern de notes del professor (Teacher’s notebook) (an app  
for tablets aimed at students).

—  Contrapunt, SCCL: a web app for mobiles and computers with information on the county  
of Vallès Oriental.

—  Marketing & Comunication Projects, SL: an app for mobiles on publications related to the  
mountain world.

— Smart Medical Solutions, SL: Medkia, software for the health sector for managing patients.

— Asartec Consultoria, SL: business programming products.

— Atlantis IT, SL: a web platform for managing vehicle fleets by GPS.

—  La Factoria d’Imatges Serveis Gràfics, SL: MakerPF (a programme with educational content) and Make it (an app for creating interactive educational projects).

—  Casamayor Franco, Pedro José: an MBS.Selecció de Personal, Personnel Recruitment programme (MBS human resources); MBS.Facturació Express programme (Express Billing);  
MBS.Total Training
programme, sports training; MBS. Gestió de consultes mèdiques programme (MBS.Management of medical consultations).

—  Comerzia Cloud Services, SL: Intrastat Online (software for managing customs declarations).

— Carlos Castilla Ingenieros, SA: software for personnel management at Grupo Castilla.

—  Moncasoft, SLU: production module in Catalan of the MGest ERP software (integral business management).

— Knowledge Innovation Market, SL: Knowledge Evaluation Tool software.

— Mola TV, SL: audiovisual programme on RSS technology for broadcasting news in Catalan.

—  Metropolitana d’Audiovisuals, SL: radio programme on RSS technology for broadcasting  
news in Catalan.

—  Ocisport Business, SL: «El català et parla» (Catalan is speaking to you). Dissemination of  
Catalan and cultural agenda to more than 40 sports centres

 

73   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

3 trade union organizations. 
— Trade Union Confederation of the National Workers’ Commission of Catalonia (CCOO):  
Project of activities by the Language Service of the CCOO of Catalonia.

—  General Workers Union (UGT): Project to promote the use of Catalan in the UGT in Catalonia.

— Workers’ Trade Union of Catalonia (USOC): Project to promote the use of Catalan in Barcelona, Tortosa and Sabadell.

The CPNL also offers support to companies and commercial establishments and provides advice and resources to help them work in Catalan.

  In 2014, 8,784 businesses and firms across Catalonia received information campaign «Català  
i empresa, ja estàs al dia?» (Catalan and business – are you up-to-date?) from the General  
Directorate of Language Policy. The aim is to publicise the linguistic provisions of the Catalan  
Consumer Code to companies and retail establishments.

  In 2014, the Consortium signed 1,475 new collaboration agreements and pacts with companies to increase the knowledge and use of Catalan in the socioeconomic world. These new  
agreements, when added to the 3,683 agreements already in existence, meant that in 2014  
there were a total of 5,056 agreements with the sector.

More than 5,000

collaboration  
agreements
 
with
companies  
to promote the use

of Catalan were in  
place in 2014

DGPL subsidies  
to encourage  
the use of Catalan  
in business,  
by destination.  
2014

Companies  
for software 12%

Companies  
for apps 16%

Trade union  
organizations 3%

Business  
organizations 13%

Companies for  
broadcasting 3%


}
 
Source: General Directorate for Language Policy.

 

74   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Fostering the use of Catalan in SMEs 
The Ministry of Culture and PIMEC have signed an agreement to establish a collaboration and communication framework between the two institutions to promote the use of Catalan in the business  
sector as well as in PIMEC’s activities and services in Catalonia.

As part of the programme of activities to promote the use of Catalan in small and medium enterprises, PIMEC has also undertaken:

The CATEMPRÈN project, a service to support business communications in Catalan. 
  8 seminars on «The Importance of Business Communications in Catalan» held in Barcelona,  
Girona, Santa Coloma de Farnés, Tàrrega, Manresa, Tarragona, Sant Celoni and Lleida.

The CATEMPRÈN forfait in support of business communications, a consultancy service on  
communications in Catalan for entrepreneurs and self-employed professionals.

CATEMPRÈN competition to highlight the companies that make an effort to use Catalan. 
  27th edition of the Award for Language Quality in the Business World. This was awarded to the  
Rambla de l’Art Cinema in Cambrils. The objective of the award is to recognize companies’  
efforts to promote the use of Catalan and foster linguistic quality.

Collaboration with the Confederation of Trade of Catalonia 
The Ministry of Culture and the Trade Confederation of Catalonia (CCC) have signed an agreement  
to underline the cooperation they have been engaged in since 1989 to promote the use of Catalan in  
the retail, services and tourism sectors in Catalonia. The agreement sets forth new mutual strategies  
to foster the use of Catalan among the 350 shopkeepers’ associations in the CCC, which represent  
more than 90,000 retailers (80% of Catalan trade).

The Government has strengthened its collaboration with the Confederation in the «Oberts al  
català» (Open to Catalan) campaign to promote Catalan in different spheres such as trade, services  
and tourism, as well as the campaign «Oberts al català» (Open to Catalan) for businesses run by immigrants: 6th edition of the Commercial and Linguistic Evaluation Plan.

Some 109 establishments have been visited, 88 of which are run by newcomers. The CCC Award  
for best language initiative in the trade sector was awarded, which aims to recognize the efforts made  
by firms and associations in the sectors of trade, services and tourism to promote the use of Catalan.

In this respect, the Ministry of Business and Trade undertook the following actions:

  Inclusion of Italian in the guides Com obrir un comerç (How to Open a Business) and the Guia  
bàsica de normativa comercial
(Basic Guide to Retail Regulations).

Preparation of a range of materials for retailers. 
  Publication in Catalan, Aranese, Spanish, French, English, Italian, Germany, Russian and Hebrew of the promotional material (guides) Benvinguts al Pirineu i les Terres de Lleida (Welcome to the Pyrenees and Les Terres de Lleida).

 

75   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Campaign: «I tu, jugues en català?» (And do you play in Catalan?) 
In 2014, the second phase of the campaign entitled «I tu, jugues en català?» (And do you play in Catalan)  
was launched, the objective being to publicize and facilitate access to the range of toys and games in  
Catalan and encourage people to buy them. 

In 2014, there were 499 establishments signed up to the campaign. The 22 Language Normalisation Centres of the Consortium organized various different activities.

— 9 workshops and 3 games fairs.

— 14 Christmas fairs and parks.

— With the collaboration of the City Council, the Provincial Council of Girona and the Board o  
Tourism, a photograph competition on the social networks of Instagram, Facebook and Twitter.

— Juga-hi! (Play it!) online competition.

Youth and leisure 
The General Directorate for Language Policy provides support for the most important sports and recreational organisations in the country to encourage actions that extend the use of Catalan. In 2014, by  
means of an annual call for initiatives from non-profit organizations aimed at promoting the use of  
Catalan in Catalonia, support was provided for 11 youth and leisure associations, 15.06% of the total  
project submitted. The associations that received support were as follows:

— Acampada Jove Cultural Association, for the Youth Music 2014 competition.

— Youth Association for Equality and Solidarity, for the APARAULAT project: Catalan for socio-occupational insertion.

— La Rotllana Association, for the XVI Music Competition of Badalona.

—  Casal dels Infants (Children’s Community Centre) for Social Action in Neighbourhoods, for its  
«Comunica’t» (Communicate) project. Actions to promote the interpersonal use of Catalan by  
young newcomers.

—  Centre d’Estudis de l’Esplai (Centre for Recreational Studies), for the project «Consum... i ACCIÓ!» (Consumerism…and ACTION!) Workshops to promote the use of Catalan among young  
people.

— Fundació Catalana de l’Esplai (Catalan Recreational Foundation), for its «Expresa’t» (Express  
Yourself in Catalan) project. Youth clubs, dynamic places for promoting the Catalan language.

—  La Roda Foundation for Cultural and Leisure Activities, for the «Comunica’t» (Communicate)  
2014 programme.

—  Pere Tarrés Foundation, to promote the use of Catalan in recreational educational activities of  
the MCECC (Christian Recreation Centre Movement of Catalonia) and to implement the MCEC  
application.

— Singuerlin Youth Group, for the «El conte del mes» (Story of the Month) project.

—  Unió de Federacions Esportives de Catalunya (Sports Federation of Catalonia), for the «Mou-te  
en català» (Get moving in Catalan) programme, the language and sport blog.

 

76   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Health 
In the healthcare field, the most noteworthy actions were as follows:

  Language training actions have been rolled out and two collaboration agreements were  
signed between the Ministry of Health and TERMCAT to draw up a Diccionari de bioètica  
(Dictionary of Bioethics) and update and disseminate the terminology of the
Diccionari Enciclopèdic de Medicina (Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Medicine). Work also took place on drawing up the Vocabulari de vacunes (Vaccination Glossary) which was completed in 2015, with  
the contribution of technicians from the Preventive Medicine Service.

The language content for Health Channel professionals was kept updated in order to offer  
linguistic resources and these were disseminated on a continuous basis.

  At the end of the year a new project was instigated which is intended to adapt and translate into Catalan the health-related quality of life questionnaires (QVRS), which are currently  
used in Spanish, especially in the field of primary healthcare and hospital care.

The Sant Jaume Hospital of Olot and County Hospital of La Garrotxa, in conjunction with  
the CPNL and the SLC of Olot-la Garrotxa, collaborated in providing content for the journals  
Bufador
and La veu de Sant Jaume. It also organized an activity as part of the Language Volunteering programme with a group of Moroccan women to work on health issues.

  Presentation at the Hospital Sant Joan de Reus of the Llegir per parlar, llegir per aprendre  
(Reading for Speaking, Reading for Learning) material with the aim that language pairs on  
the Language Volunteering programme run by the hospital can use them to reinforce their  
language learning.

  A collaboration agreement was signed between the Regional Health Authority of Tarragona,  
the Linguistic Normalisation Centre of Tarragona and El Vendrell Hospital to conduct a language survey in the hospital.

Justice 
The Ministry of Culture and the Ministry of Justice have signed five framework agreements with  
professional associations in the legal sector to promote the use of Catalan in the courts and in the  
legal world.

The Catalan government, through various agreements, provides language tools and training  
for more than 25,000 professionals working in the legal profession: 20,000 lawyers, 1,000 public  
prosecutors, 440 notaries, 160 registrars and almost 4,000 social graduates.

In 2014 training in Catalan continues as part of the framework agreements signed of a total of  
457 legal professionals, including lawyers, prosecutors, notaries, property registrars and labour relations legal advisers. These actions are aimed at increasing the use of Catalan in the legal and judicial  
spheres and guaranteeing the language rights of the general public.

Agreements  
with the

five  
professional  
association

councils { }

 

77   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Language qualifications

The current system of evaluating knowledge of Catalan when allocating posts in the Justice Administration is based on the attribution of a merit which is taken into account in examinations for initial  
appointments and for transfers.

  Judges. The level with a merit is Intermediate and accounts for one, two or three years, depending on the category.

  Judicial clerks. This is computed according to different situations and posts can be established  
with specific profiles where this is a requirement. The Elementary level counts for one year on  
the professional ranking; the Proficiency level counts for two years and Advanced counts for  
three years.

  Prosecutors. Their Articles of Association envisage this evaluation in examinations for locum  
prosecutors in accordance with the different levels of language competence (Intermediate,  
Proficiency or Advanced).

  Support and administrative staff. An evaluation is made for the first posting and transfers in  
accordance with the levels (Proficiency or Advanced).

Promotion of the certificate of knowledge of Catalan legal language

The government has approved a decree that promotes the certificate of Catalan legal language (Level  
J) to encourage awareness between professional groups in the field of justice and thereby fulfil citizens’ linguistic rights. Driven by the Ministries of Justice and Culture, the decree establishes and  
regulates the requirements for obtaining a J certificate which will be issued by the General Directorate  
of Language Policy and the Centre for Legal Study and Specialized Training.

The certificate will allow for texts to be written in Catalan adjusting the content and structure of  
each document using language resources appropriately and correctly, taking legal language into account.

Campaign «En català, també és de llei» (In Catalan: it’s also the law»)

At the end of 2014, the campaign «En català, també és de llei» (In Catalan: it’s also the law) to promote  
the use of Catalan in the courts. The aim of the initiative, supported by the Ministry of Justice, is on the  
one hand to inform and raise awareness among citizens of why Catalan should be used in relation to  
the world of justice and, on the other, among professionals in the sector as to why Catalan should be  
employed equally in courts as in public registries, notaries, law firms or labour relations consultancies  
amongst other environments. 

«En català, també és de llei» is directed at legal and justice professionals to provide citizens with  
a choice of language.  
A website has been created which includes testimonies, a portfolio of tools and resources for  
working in Catalan, aimed at legal professionals, with information on the laws and legal procedures  
that can be undertaken in Catalan. http://www.gencat.cat/llengua/justicia/.

 

78   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

In 2014, we can highlight the following actions:

—  Presentation of the campaign within the framework of the V Seminar to Promote the Use  
of Catalan in Justice, organized by the Language Committee of the Council of the Bar Associations of Catalonia (CICAC).

— The Plenary of the Parliament approved the proposal to the General Courts to amend  
the Organic Law on Judicial Power which regulates the Organic Statute of the Prosecution Service, and other correlative regulations, in order to guarantee knowledge of Catalan  
among the personnel of the Justice Administration.

— The aim of the proposal is that the official status of Catalan within the Justice Administration remains fully effective. Thus, it not only complies with current legislation but also  
with the recommendations of the Council of Ministers of the European Council on the  
application of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.

In 2014 a total of 1,442 professionals enrolled on courses teaching Catalan and legal language.  
These people came from various different bodies within the Justice Administration: judges, public  
prosecutors, clerks and administrative personnel, as well as other professionals working in the legal  
field thanks to agreements signed between the Ministry of Culture and the Ministry of Justice with  
the professional associations representing them: lawyers, notaries, prosecutors of Catalan courts,  
labour relations legal advisers and property and commercial registrars in Catalonia.

Number of students  
on Catalan and  
judicial language  
courses. 2011-2014
1,800

1,600

1,400

1,200

1,000

800

600

400

200

0

2011 2012 2013 2014

1,337

1,250

1,628

1,442

Source: Ministry of Justice.

1,442 professionals  
on Catalan and legal  
language courses in the  
field of justice
{ }

 

79   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Justice Portal of Catalonia

The Justice Portal of Catalonia (http://portaljuridic.gencat.cat/) provides the current law in Catalonia  
and a range of information services with the aim of being able to access and consult updated regulations in Catalan. The access of society (citizens, companies, the judiciary, public administrations,  
etc.) to current laws is one of the basic principles of transparency and democratic quality as well as  
promoting the social use of Catalan. Throughout 2014, the Justice Portal of Catalonia published 590  
consolidations of rules and 6,729 regulatory modifications and incorporated the retrospective consolidation of Catalan Government decrees from the period 1978-1993, which were added to decrees  
from 1999 up to the present day (consolidated and consultable since the creation of the Portal).

In order to consult State legislation consolidated in Catalan, the Official Gazette and Publications Independent Organisation has worked with the Lexcat team of the Ministry of Justice, which  
this year has produced the consolidation of 11 new state laws published on the Justice Portal of Catalonia (at the end of the year, 171 state laws consolidated in Catalan).

The function of the Justice Portal of Catalonia was recognized in Law 19/2014 of 29 December  
2014 on transparency, access to public information and good governance, which, in Article 63.2  
states: : «The Administration, in order to facilitate knowledge of the current law, must produce consolidated texts on regulations when they have been amended. «The consolidated texts are informative and must clearly indicate their nature and which regulations are being consolidated.»

 

80   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Official Gazette and Publications Independent Organisation 
The translation into Catalan of the legislation published in the Official State Bulletin (BOE)  
is coordinated by the Catalan Government’s Official Gazette and Publications Independent  
Organisation (EADOP), whose importance must be stressed in respect of the normalisation  
of judicial procedures in Catalan and the presence of Catalan among the legal community in  
general; the translation of judicial regulations provides the means by which judicial and administrative procedures can be comprehensively followed in Catalan.

The BOE’s translation service started to operate following an agreement between the  
State’s General Administration and the Catalan Government in 1998, but the terms of the collaboration agreement also included the publication of retrospective supplements of all the  
regulations ranked as laws not expressly repealed in the BOE, which is the reason why there is  
a collection of translated supplements going back a total of 19 years prior to the signing of the  
aforementioned agreement (from 1979). All of the supplements are available to be consulted  
on the BOE website.

Throughout 2014, 10,535 pages of state laws were translated which represents a total of  
309 provisions published in 292 supplements. The progress compared to previous years can  
be seen in the following table:

BOE in Catalan 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

Supplements 310 297 290 304 292

Provisions 400 388 209 267 309

Pages 6,095 6,606 3,384 5,285 10,535

 

81   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Organisations 
Organisations that promote the use of Catalan on their own initiative are an example of social dynamism and are a hugely important ally for the Generalitat’s language policy. For this reason, the Ministry of Culture, through the General Directorate for Language Policy, supports these efforts through  
two initiatives:

  Support for projects that foster the use of Catalan instigated by organisations. In 2014, grants  
were awarded to 73 projects whose aim was to take action in those sectors of the population  
where there was a deficit in the use of Catalan. The organisations under this umbrella come  
from the fields of culture, social integration, business organisations, trade unions, the promotion of Catalan, youth, sports and leisure.

73 projects  
to promote the use  
of Catalan driven by

organizations

new

technologies

social  
integration

promoting  
the  
language

business,  
professions  
and trade  
unions

culture youth &

leisure

Number of projects  
promoted by  
organizations,  
according to type.  
2014

20

15

10

5

0

20 19

2

8

13

11

Source: General Directorate for Language Policy.

{ }

 

82   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

The Catalan government, through the ministries of Culture, Presidency, Governance and Institutional Relations, Education, Social Welfare and Family, Business and Labour, and Justice,  
supports the Platform for Language in accordance with the collaboration agreement it has  
signed.

  Support for the census of organisations that foster the Catalan language. The census includes  
foundations and associations engaged in initiatives to promote the Catalan language within  
their sphere of operations. In 2014 this went from 120 to 142 organizations, which represents  
an increase of 18.33%.

2009 2010 2011

Census of  
organizations  
that promote the  
Catalan language  
2002 – 2014

Census

Renew

150

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

2003 2002 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2012 2013 2014

22 26 27

31

40 42 43 46

55

66

86

120

142

22

26 27

31

39 41

55

62

83

117

37 36

Source: General Directorate for Language Policy.

142

organizations make  
up the Census
{ }

 

83   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Dissemination of the Catalan language 
In 2013, the General Directorate of Language Policy set in motion the App of the Week project on the  
occasion of the Mobile World Congress to publicize the range of apps for mobile devices in Catalan  
and to promote their use.

Throughout this period, some 95 apps in Catalan have been recommended, these being just a  
sample of the thousands of apps in Catalan available on the network which are constantly growing  
thanks to market demand.

Another initiative, which is sent weekly by the General Directorate of Language Policy, is «Magazines in Catalan», which reveals the most outstanding publications in the Catalan language to be  
found at kiosks.

«300 fets de llengua» (300 Language Events)

On the occasion of the commemoration of the Triple Centenary of the events of 11 September 1714,  
the Ministry of Culture, through the General Directorate of Language Policy, rolled out the project  
entitled «300 fets de llengua» (300 Language Events) to increase people’s knowledge of these events,  
both positive and negative, which have affected the Catalan language throughout history. The campaign includes a board game, a website with an interactive timeline featuring the 300 most important  
language events, a competition aimed at students and volunteers of the Consortium for Language  
Normalisation, and a competition aimed at the general public via regional newspapers.

Some 2,729 students entered the competition and 210 participants from the Language Volunteering programme from 72 towns, and in June the grand final was held at a festive event with the 41  
finalist pairs, nine of which won prizes. With regard to the competition in the press, 14 publications  
and 1,000 people took part.

«La Línia del temps de la història del català» (The timeline of the history of Catalan) is a website that gradually displays the 300 events chronologically: http://www.gencat.cat/llengua/300fets/ 
linia/.

II Nit de la Llengua al Món Digital

In 2014, the General Directorate of Language Policy and Amical Wikimedia organized the second  
edition of the Nit de la Llengua al Món Digital (Language in the Digital World Night). The central  
event was a ‘Wikimarathon’ in which various volunteers updated articles about the Catalan language on Wikipedia. This year it was held simultaneously in Barcelona, Girona and Tarragona.

The central theme of the II Nit de la Llengua al Món Digital was the content of the campaign  
«300 fets de llengua».

2,939 people  
took part in the

«300 fets de  
llengua»
 
game
{ }

 

84   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Catalan, a European language  
«Catalan, a European Language» is an exhibition organized by the Ministry of Culture which uses  
objective data to demonstrate the vitality, prestige and competitive capacity of the Catalan language  
within the framework of European languages, distributed over seven subject areas with brief texts  
in Catalan and another language (English, German, Italian or Sardinian) and images that further  
strengthen this vision.

In 2014, 58 exhibitions were organized which travelled to 39 Catalan towns and most notably the FC Barcelona Museum. More than 825,000 people visited the exhibition in Catalonia which  
was also put on in other towns outside the region such as Prada de Conflent, Nantes, Granada and  
Paranà.Various conferences and round tables were organized based on the exhibition, such as

«Salvar paraules?» (Saving Words?) given by journalist Empar Moliner in Manresa; «Catalunya,  
una llengua i una nació europees» (Catalonia, a European language and nation) in Lleida, and the  
round table «Catalunya y España: estado de la cuestión» (Catalonia and Spain: the state of the matter) in Granada.

Awards 
The Catalan government and various other institutions, especially in the fields of the economy and  
leisure, recognize in the form of prizes the people and organizations that have stimulated the quality and social prestige of the Catalan language. In 2014, the General Directorate for Language Policy participated in and provided support for the awards for the Catalan language and Catalan sign  
language.

The V Pompeu Fabra Awards, given by the Ministry of Culture, were instigated in 2008 in order  
to recognize the individuals, institutions, companies or organizations that have contributed to  
promoting the use of the Catalan language. The awards are given in the following six categories:

— Pompeu Fabra Award for the promotion and dissemination of the Catalan language.

— Pompeu Fabra Award for professional, scientific or civic achievement.

— Pompeu Fabra Award for the socioeconomic sphere.

— Pompeu Fabra Award for communication and new technologies.

— Pompeu Fabra Award for inclusion in the Catalan linguistic community.

— Pompeu Fabra Award for language volunteering.

  III Robèrt Lafont Award, instigated by the Ministry of Culture in 2010, in recognition of the  
protection, projection and promotion of the Occitan language.

The exhibition

«Catalan,  
a European  
language»
,  
was held in

43 towns

{ }

 

85   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Business

  CCC Award for Best Language Initiative in the Commercial Sector, awarded by the Chamber  
of Commerce of Catalonia.

  SME Award for Language Quality in the business world, organized by the Small and Medium  
Enterprise association, PIMEC.

  Alimara.cat Award, organised by the Centre for Tourism and Hospitality Education and Research (CETT).

  Recognition for Language Quality in Business, awarded by the Independent Association of  
Young Business Owners of Catalonia (AIJEC).

  Award for Language Normalisation in the Socioeconomic Sphere of Alt Camp (Consortium for  
Language Normalisation and Alt Camp Regional Council).

Cinema

  Llanterna Digital Awards given by the Language Services Coordinator of Lleida for short films  
in Catalan and Occitan.

  Sixth edition of the Gaudí Award for Best Film in Catalan (Catalan Academy of Cinematographic Arts and Sciences).

  Fic-cat Awards. Costa Daurada Festival of Short Films in Catalan (Fic-cat Association). 
  Filmets Awards (Filmets Badalona Film Festival).

Associations and organisations

  II Joan Solà International Award for Research in Catalan Philology (Institute of Studies about  
Lleida, UdL, Bell-lloc d’Urgell Town Council, IEC and Òmnium Cultural, in collaboration with  
the Ministry of Culture).

  Carme Serrallonga Award for Language Quality (University of Barcelona). 
  Roc Boronat literary competition in the Catalan language. 
  27th edition of the Award for Linguistic and Cultural Normalisation (Cultural Action Athenaeum-ADAC).

  Agustí Juandó i Royo Award [Consell dels Il·lustres Col·legis d’Advocats de Catalunya (Lawyers’ Association of Catalonia)].

  Joan Coromines Award, given by the Coordinator of Associations for Language in recognition  
of the efforts made by individuals or groups.

  14th Jaume Camps Award for Sociolinguistics (Òmnium Cultural del Vallès Oriental). 
  Award for Ideas to Promote the Use of Catalan in Reus (Reus City Council, Consortium for  
Language Normalisation).

  Aramón i Serra Award for Linguistic Fidelity (National Language Association). 
  Josep M. Batista i Roca Awards. Enric Garriga Trullols Memorial (Catalan Institute for the Projection of Catalan Culture Abroad-IPECC).

  LSC-FESOCA Award for Catalan sign language.

 

86   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Presence on the internet and social networks

The presence of the language policy bodies of the Generalitat on the internet and on social networks is fully established. The websites of the Consortium for Language Normalisation, the TERMCAT Centre for Terminology and the General Directorate for Language Policy have received a total  
of 7,563,705 visits.

Website visits

DGPL

5,000,000

4,000,000

3,000,000

2,000,000

1,000,000

0

TERMCAT CPNL

3,895,769

833,232

2,834,704

Source: Produced by the General Directorate of Language Policy. DGPL, CPNL and TERMCAT.

Social network  
followers

DGPL

35,000

30,000

25,000

20,000

15,000

10,000

5,000

0

19,442

13,331

TERMCAT

1,071

6,922

CPNL

32,094

12,068

Source: Produced by the General Directorate of Language Policy. DGPL, CPNL and TERMCAT.

Twitter

Facebook

7.5 million visits  
to the language policy  
websites
{ }

The social network  
profiles have almost

85,000  
followers
{ }

 

87   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Language  
rights

Language Guarantees Office 
The General Directorate for Language Policy deals with complaints from the general public concerning their language rights and the use of the language as well as requests for information through the  
Oficina de Garanties Lingüístiques (Language Guarantees Office). In 2014 there were 556 requests  
from citizens, of which 151 were in reference to language rights.

The Catalan Health Service and the Catalan Institute of Health also received complaints in relation to linguistic matters in the field of healthcare. A total of 101 complaints were received: 73 due  
to the failure to use Catalan, and 28 due to the failure to use Spanish.

Complaints about  
language rights

450

400

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

2011 2012 2013 2014

Due to the failure to use Catalan Due to the failure to use Spanish Total requests

394

146

181

144

3 14 6 7

397

160

187

151

Source: General Directorate for Language Policy.

556 requests to  
the Language  
Guarantees Office
{ }

 

88   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

 barcelona girona lleida tarragona terres de l'ebre total

Number of complaints 68 2 1 3 0 74

Actions by inspectors 952 229 81 35 14 1.311

Proven infringements 481 39 3 11 4 538

Disciplinary cases resolved  54 0 1 2 0 57

Number of disciplinary cases 48,350 0 1,500 1,500 0 51,350

Catalan Consumer Agency 
The Catalan Consumer Agency is the body with the authority to guarantee companies’ compliance  
with the rights of consumers and users of services. To protect consumers it uses a variety of mechanisms:

The difference between the proven infringements and the cases resolved can be explained by  
the fact that most of the infringements identified were settled while the case was being processed.

 

89   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

International exposure

C 
atalan language and literature are studied in 148 universities around the world; of these, 86 are  
part of the Network of Catalan Studies Abroad of the Ramon Llull Institute (IRL). 
In 2014, the IRL carried out the following main actions:

Maintenance of the Network of Catalan Studies Abroad with its 86 universities in 26 countries, of  
which 66 are in Europe, 17 in America, two in Asia and one in Oceania.

In the 2014-2015 academic year, Catalan studies began at TUFS (Tokyo University of Foreign  
Studies) in Japan and at the University of Regensburg in Germany, and teaching of Catalan literature resumed at the University of Milan after a two year break. Preparations are underway on  
agreements with the University of de São Paulo (Brazil) and the University of Foreign Studies in  
Beijing (BFSU) with the aim of starting Catalan studies from 2015. However, economic support  
has not been maintained for the universities of Lancaster (UK) or Brown (USA) which have now  
dropped their Catalan language courses.

The teaching  
of Catalan  
abroad

Source: Ramon Llull Institute.

Germany  20

Argentina  3

Australia 1

Austria  2

Brazil 1

Canada  4

Croatia 1

Cuba 1

Spain 7

United States   24

Estonia 1

Finland  1

France  20

Holland (Netherlands) 1

Hungary 3

Ireland  2

Israel  1

Italy  13

Japan  3

Lithuania 1

Mexico 2

Poland 2

Portugal 1

United Kingdom 21

Czech Republic  3

Romania  1

Russia 2

Serbia 1

Sweden 1

Switzerland 1

Thailand 1

Chile 2

TOTAL 148

Universities by country

2003 
2004

93

2004 
2005

95

2005 
2006

98

2006 
2007

107

2007 
2008

124

2008 
2009

121

2009 
2010

126

2010 
2011

123

2011 
2012

114

2013 
2014

86

2012 
2013

114

Number of  
universities in the  
Network of Catalan  
Studies abroad.  
2003 – 2014

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

Source: drawn up by the DGPL based on data from the Ramon Llull Institute.

 

90   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

The number of students enrolled for Catalan language and culture subjects was 5,848, most  
of which are in the UK (700), France (582) and Germany (551). In accordance with the trend in  
the last few years, language subjects attract the most students (67.50%), especially levels A1, A2  
and B1 (83%), though there is a progressive increase in enrolments for subjects with a cultural  
(16%) and literature (9%) content.

In German universities, work has continued on implementing the Qualificació Complementària (Supplementary Qualification in Catalan Language and Culture), which in 2014 involved the participation of 12 students from various universities, a significant drop compared  
to the previous year.

Advanced studies and research continued to be promoted by means of funding from the Centre of Catalan Studies at the Sorbonne in Paris, the Catalan Studies Research Centre (Queen  
Mary, University of London), the Joan Coromines Chair of Catalan Studies (University of Chicago), the Juníper Serra Chair (University of Stanford) and the Rodoreda Chair (The Graduate  
Center; City University, New York.

The Ramon Llull Institute organized various actions geared towards students from outside the  
linguistic domain to help them visit Catalan-speaking regions:

— During the 2013-2014 academic year, courses were given in the universities of Bari, Bremen, Bochum, Bologna, Cork, Manchester, Naples (L’Orientale), Roma (La Sapienza), Turin and Venice, directed at students who intend to continue or extend their studies in a  
Catalan-speaking university, with the aim of helping them obtain a basic knowledge of  
Catalan in their home country. A total of 286 students took part in this initiative.

— XIII University Campus of the Catalan Language. Held in Andorra la Vella and Girona between 13 and 27 July, Catalan language courses were given at the Elementary (B1) and  
Intermediate (B2) levels as well as courses on Catalan culture, and activities and cultural  
tours were organized for 29 students from 12 different countries (Germany, Canada, USA,  
Estonia, France, Hungary, Italy, Poland, UK, Czech Republic, Russia and Serbia).

— Summer language school in Barcelona. The Ramon Llull Institute, in collaboration with the  
University of Barcelona, organized the second edition of the Summer Language Study Stay  
in Barcelona between 1 and 18 July, aimed at students of Catalan at universities and other  
educational centres abroad. The stay combined language courses at Elementary (B1) and  
Intermediate (B2) levels and in Catalan culture with a programme of leisure activities and  
language exchanges in conversation groups with students from the University of Barcelona. A total of 28 students took part from 11 countries (Germany, Canada, Croatia, Spain,  
USA, France, Poland, UK, Czech Republic, Russia and Serbia).

5,848  
students  
followed Catalan  
language,
literature

and cultural courses

at foreign

universities


}

 

91   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Teacher training programmes: 
— XXVIII International Seminars for Catalan Teachers. From 21 to 24 July, the Ramon Llull  
Institute organized the twenty-eighth edition of the International Seminars for Catalan  
Teachers, a space for learning, meeting, discussions and reflections for teachers of Catalan

studies at foreign universities. Held at the University of Lleida, around a hundred teachers  
attended and also shared educational experiences through presentations, workshops and  
working groups.

— Foreign culture in the classroom: practices, challenges and educational material. The Ramon Llull Institute and the University of Saarland organized a training seminar aimed at  
teachers of Catalan studies at German universities. The course, held in Saarbrücken on 9  
May, was attended by 21 professors from 16 universities.

— Lingue a confronto (Comparing languages): la didattica di lingue affini (the teaching of  
related languages). The Ramon Llull Institute and the Ca’ Foscari University of Venice organized this training course for teachers of Catalan in Italy and Croatia on 27 and 28 November. The course was attended by 21 professors from 11 Italian universities and Zadar  
University in Croatia.

— Training course on teaching Catalan as a foreign language. The Ramon Llull Institute, the  
Valencian Language Academy and the Vives Network of Universities organized the fifth  
edition of this course which was held in Vinaròs and Morella from 17 to 19 October. The  
aim of the course was to train future teachers of the Catalan language in foreign universities, and a total of 40 people signed up for the course.

— Xarxallull.cat platform. The Xarxallull.cat platform is the benchmark site for foreign teachers on which to share teaching experiences and where various activities are organized and  
disseminated. It also continued to be used as a platform for teaching and learning, with the  
possibility of offering specialized courses, and by the Community of Practice for putting  
together cultural programmes that ran up until June.

The Ramon Llull Institute has continued to support international Catalan study associations  
by means of annual agreements for undertaking projects related to Catalan studies:

— Anglo-Catalan Society (ACS) 
— Association Française des Catalanistes (AFC) 
— Associazione Italiana di Studi Catalani (AISC) 
— Deutscher Katalanistenverband (DKV) 
— North American Catalan Society (NACS) 
— International Association of Catalan Language and Culture (AILLC) 
— International Federation of Catalan Associations (FIAC).

182 teachers  
of Catalan studies around  
the world have taken part in  
the training programmes
{ }

 

92   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Catalan communities abroad 
Foreign language communities have maintained their levels of activity in relation to Catalan. These  
communities, made up of Catalans and Catalanophiles worldwide, enjoy the official recognition of  
the Generalitat. Over the year, with the Government’s support, 147 Catalan language courses and  
workshops were organized, managed by 51 organizations.

Source: Presidential Department.

Secretary of Foreign Affairs and the European Union.

Germany 3

Argentina 13

Australia 1

Austria 1

Belgium 1

Brazil 2

Canada 1

Costa Rica 1

Cuba 1

Denmark 1

Ecuador 3

Spain 5

France 5

Italy 2

Japan 1

Luxembourg 1

Mexico 2

Paraguay 1

Switzerland 2

Uruguay 1

Venezuela 1

Chile 1

China 1

TOTAL 51

147 courses in Catalan  
communities abroad   

Map of Catalan  
communities  
abroad

Source: Presidential Department. Secretary of Foreign Affairs and the European Union.

Catalan  
communities

{ }

 

93   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

C 
atalan-speaking territories need spaces and instruments for collaborating and sharing information, projects and resources and for promoting the language.

Casa de la Generalitat in Perpignan 
The Casa de la Generalitat (Catalan Government House) in Perpignan (France), the official representative of the Catalan Government in North Catalonia, through its Dissemination of the Catalan  
Language Service, provides support and resources for the initiatives and projects to promote Catalan  
as well as offering advice to institutions, companies and associations.

In 2014 the following Catalan courses were held:

Catalan exams of the General Directorate of Language Policy, with a total of 88 people registered.

Apart from the courses, the Casa de la Generalitat in Perpignan also organized other actions, such as:

— The Discovering South Catalonia programme, supporting immersive and bilingual schools  
on trips and stays in Catalonia, involving 512 students.   
— The Reading in Catalan at School programme, with subscriptions to Catalan magazines  
(Cucafera and Camacuc) for 21 primary immersive and bilingual schools.

— The Language Volunteering programme had twelve new language pairings.

— The translation of the texts of the official catalogue for the Visa Off festival of amateur photojournalism in Perpignan.

— Various dissemination and documentation activities. Talks on the Catalan language were  
given at primary and secondary schools. Documentation on the Catalan language was also  
distributed to associations and schoolchildren.

Collaboration  
with other  
Catalan-speaking  
territories

2 at Beginner level  37 students

1 complementary level  14 students 
1 summer immersion workshop  10 students
 
Total  61 students

Beginners  36 examinees

Elementary  27 enrolled

Intermediate  17 enrolled

Proficiency  18 enrolled

Total  88 enrolled

 

94   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

The Generalitat in Alghero 
The Generalitat's representative in Alghero worked to strengthen the presence and knowledge of  
Catalan language and culture outside the region. In 2014, the following actions were undertaken:

— Collaboration agreement between the Municipality of Alghero and Generalitat of Catalonia  
(signed in 2009) to promote economic, commercial and tourist relations over an eight-year  
period. This includes strengthening school and academic exchanges to disseminate and consolidate the social use of the Catalan language.

— Publication of a bilingual story (Algherese-Italian) inspired by the legend of St George but set  
in Alghero to teach Sardinian children about the origins of this date and the history of Alghero  
itself. The project included presentations at schools by the author, Carla Valentino.

— Screening of the documentary Lo dia que els peixos han escomençat a pescar (The Day the  
Fish Started Fishing), a film about the memory and cultural identity of Alghero, proposing  
future solutions to foster the social use of the language. Round table in Barcelona following  
the screening with representatives of various institutions from Alghero and Catalonia.

— Botigueta project: the network where we want to speak Algherese to promote the use of Catalan in stores.

— Other collaborations: Istituto Alberghiero of Alghero, l’Escola del Treball (Work School) of  
Barcelona, IES of Sant Andreu de Llavaneres, Institució de les Lletres Catalanes (Institute of  
Catalan Letters, ILC) and Istituto Bellieni de Sàsser, for the organization of a Seminar on poetic translation involving Catalan and Sardinian authors. MINET TV, to prepare a report on  
the Catalan language in Alghero; The FC Barcelona Foundation for the Barçakids project in  
Alghero; Òmnium Cultural of Alghero, the Cyrano bookshop in Alghero and Ara Música of  
Alghero in the organization of the
Més a prop (Getting closer) festival.

 

95   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Regional distribution of the Population Survey on Language Use (EULP 2013) 
The General Directorate for Language Policy, having conducted the Population Survey on Language  
Use 2013 (EULP 2013) in Catalonia, has instigated the development of regional surveys with institutions and organizations in Catalan-speaking regions in order to gather data on the whole linguistic  
domain. In 2014, the following agreements were reached:

— Collaboration agreement between the Ministry of Culture of the Catalan Government and the  
Ministry of Culture of the Government of Andorra.

— Collaboration agreement between the Ministry of Culture and the Municipality of Alghero.  
Survey of 625 citizens of Alghero.

— Collaboration agreements between the Ministry of Culture and the University of the Balearic  
islands. Theoretic sampling of 1,800 citizens.

Other actions 
The General Directorate for Language Policy has also undertaken the following actions:

— Creation of a web platform on the Catalan Language portal with a presence on the social  
networks to support and disseminate initiatives in favour of the unity of the language.

— Promotion of the incorporation of organisations across the whole region in the census of  
organisations for fostering Catalan. In 2014, 11 organizations from outside Catalonia were  
incorporated:

· Catalan Cultural Centre of Andorra (Andorra) 
· Cultural Association of Matarranya (Aragon) 
· Association for the Teaching of Catalan – APLEC (France) 
· Association for the Defence of the Historical and Cultural Heritage of Alghero (Italy) 
· Romanquí (Rome, Italy) 
· Institute of Ibizan Studies (Balearic Islands) 
· Alcover Network Cultural Association (Balearic Islands) 
· Bromera Foundation for the Promotion of Culture (Region of Valencia) 
· Joan Lluís Vives Institute Association (Region of Valencia) 
· El Tempir Civic Association for Language (Region of Valencia) 
· Cultural Action of the Valencian Community (Region of Valencia)

— Support for the Joan Veny scholarship. Research on linguistic diversity and standardisation  
through the Ramon Muntaner Institute.

— Support for Òmnium Catalunya Nord to promote and disseminate Catalan courses for adults.

 

96   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Activities  
in the Spanish  
State

Catalan Government Delegation in Madrid 
The Catalan classes of the Catalan Government Delegation in Madrid, which are intended to disseminate knowledge of Catalan language and culture in Madrid, offer various Catalan language  
courses for adults. All the courses last for 90 hours.

The Government Delegation held two Catalan language examinations which were organized  
and managed by the Ramon Llull Institute, with a total of 178 examinees. Government initiatives  
elsewhere in Spain focus on activities that promote and disseminate Catalan culture.

As well as the courses at the Blanquerna Cultural Centre and support for Spanish universities  
through the Ramon Llull Institute, the Government Delegation also carried out the following actions:

— Organisation of the Week of Catalan Culture at the Blanquerna Cultural Centre.

— 4,462 people from elsewhere in Spain signed up for the first time for Catalan courses on the  
virtual learning site Parla.cat.

— Parla.cat received 138,961 visits from the rest of Spain.

Other actions 
Collaboration agreement between the Ministry of Culture and the Ministry of Education,  
Language Policy and Culture of the Basque Government for specialist documentation centres to collaborate on the social aspects of language, regarded as among the most important

repositories in Europe: the Documentation Centre of the General Directorate for Language  
Policy on behalf of Catalonia and HABE Liburutegia on behalf of the Basque Country.

Participation of the General Directorate of Language Policy in the II Aragonese Seminars  
on Sociology. As part of the programme of these seminars, a round table was organized on  
Languages and Identities.

level enrolled students

Basic (A2) 97

Elementary (B1) 42

Intermediate (B2) 54

Proficiency (C1) 62

Advanced (C2) 11

Conversational course 14

Course for children 9

Total students in 2014 289

178 examinees  
sat Catalan exams in  
Madrid
{ }

 

97   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

T 
he Catalan Government is a member of the European Network to Promote Linguistic Diversity  
(NPLD), the Association of Language Testers in Europe (ALTE) and the European Association of  
Terminology (EAT). All three are the leading European associations in their respective fields.

European Network to Promote Linguistic Diversity  
The network represents 16 European languages: Catalan, Occitan, Gaelic, Irish, Basque, Galician,  
Cornish, Breton, Frisian, Welsh, Estonian, Finnish, Swedish, Lithuanian, Corsican and Sami. In 2014,  
the General Directorate for Language Policy took part in the following meetings of the network:

Meeting of experts from the European Network to Promote Linguistic Diversity (NPLD) to discuss new strategies to raise the European Union’s awareness of minority languages. On the  
same day, the NPLD Steering Committee held a round table on the motion approved by the European Parliament on Endangered and Minority Languages and the response of the European  
Union Commission, amongst other topics.

Meeting on the Traditional Linguistic Communities of France, held at the National Assembly in  
Paris. As part of the presentation on the Traditional Linguistic Communities of France, and at  
the request of the DGPL, the French-Catalan Trans-Border Institute of the University of Perpignan reported on the situation of the Catalan language.

Congress of the Association of Language Testers in Europe 
In 2014, the General Directorate for Language Policy took part in the fifth International Congress  
of the Association of Language Testers in Europe (ALTE) held in the International Centre for Educational Studies in Sèvres (Paris) and entitled «Testing languages for multilingualism: promoting  
linguistic diversity and intercultural communication.»

The ALTE Congress represents an opportunity for professional growth for everyone involved  
in teaching and testing languages, and the chance to hear influential voices, discuss key issues and  
meet colleagues from around the world.

Linguanet Europa 
The General Directorate for Language Policy has taken part in the Linguanet Europa project, which  
is a multilingual online resource centre for teaching and learning languages, offering web links and  
information on useful, high quality material for language teaching.

In November 2014, at the Expolingua trade show in Berlin, the new website of the Lingu@network was presented (www.linguanetwork.org). This portal features more interactive options and  
offers a new interface which is available for all the functionalities in nine languages of European  
Union countries, one of which is Catalan, plus Arabic, Russian and Chinese.

Involvement  
in European  
organisations

 

98   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Terminology Summit 
In 2014 the Terminology Summit, which is held every two years in a different European location, was  
hosted by Barcelona 
The Summit was organized by TERMCAT and the European Terminology Association with the  
collaboration of the General Directorate for Language Policy of the Ministry of Culture, the General Delegation for the French Language and the Languages of France, TERMNET and the Catalan  
Terminology Society (SCATERM). The central topic was the role of social networks in terminology  
projects, as in the last few years these networks have become a key part of terminology-related activities and their dissemination. The debate featured over thirty speakers from different international  
organizations and companies who spoke in Catalan, English and French. Almost one hundred organizations signed up for the event.

The European Association for Terminology fosters multilingualism through terminology and  
provides a European platform for promoting and professionalising terminology-related activities,  
improving awareness of them and liaising and cooperating actively with other relevant organisations, associations and institutions engaged in terminology.

The Summit also hosted the International Terminology Awards which every two years recognize the most outstanding work in the field of terminology research, whether theoretical or applied.  
The awards are given by the EAT according to the verdict of an international jury made up of respected experts.

Cooperation of TERMCAT in other national and International terminology  
networks
 
TERMCAT collaborates with these networks by sharing and disseminating information and publications on terminology, contributing to the seminars and congresses organized as part of the networks’ activities, by participating in the board meetings of certain organizations – TERMCAT has  
held the executive secretariat of the EAT since 2011 and the treasury since 2013 – and participation  
in multilingual terminology projects.

— AETER, the Spanish Association for Terminology 
— EAT, European Association for Terminology 
— REALITER, the Panlatin Terminology Network 
— RITERM, the Ibero-American Terminology Network 
— SCATERM, the Catalan Association for Terminology

96 organizations  
and more than
14  
languages were present  
at the

Terminology  
Summit

}

 

99   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

IV International Symposium on the Teaching of Catalan 
In 2014, the IV International Symposium on the Teaching of Catalan was held, organized by the  
University of Vic-Central Catalonia, the Catalan Government (Ministries of Culture, Education, and  
Economy and Knowledge), the Philology Department of the Institute of Catalan Studies, the Consortium for Language Normalisation, the Ramon Llull Institute and the Vives Network.

The aim of the Symposium, which was attended by more than 300 delegates and featured 140  
abstracts and presentations, was to evaluate the state of teaching in the Catalan language, define  
the lines for future action and encourage the sharing of experiences and research geared towards  
promoting the knowledge and use of Catalan among people for whom it is not their mother tongue.  
The Symposium was based around four main themes: culture and society; the didactics of language;  
acquiring and learning languages; and teacher training.

 

100   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Sign language in Catalan (LSC)

L 
In 2014, there were 29,424 people in Catalonia with hearing impairment according to figures  
from the Ministry of Social Welfare and Family.

The Social Council of Catalan Sign Language

In February 2013, the Social Council of Catalan Sign Language was established, the body responsible  
for advice, consultations and social participation in the government’s language policy in relation to  
Catalan sign language. This body was set up in accordance with the provisions of Act 17/2010, of 3  
June 2010, on Catalan Sign Language (LSC), passed in 2010.

In May 2014, the Council held its annual meeting. At the meeting, a proposal was put forward  
to set up the LSC Prize for the Promotion of Catalan Sign Language which will be held for the first  
time in 2015.

Catalan sign language in education

The Catalan Government, through the Ministry of Education, offers bilingual LSC/Catalan  
teaching as part of the compulsory education system at seven schools in Barcelona, Sabadell  
and Girona. There are also 47 centres for hearing-impaired children which are the centres of  
reference for schooling children who have special needs deriving from hearing impairments  
for infant, primary and secondary compulsory education. They also have the support of speech therapists at the educational centres for the hearing impaired (CREDA) and language and  
hearing educators (MALL).

Non-compulsory education (baccalaureate and other further education) provides a support  
interpreter for up to 15 hours per week per student. In 2014, 56 students made use of this service at schools in Catalonia, involving a total of 675 hours of interpretation.

Promotion of  
knowledge  
of Catalan sign  
language

 

101   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

In 2014, the first edition of the Applied Language Course on Catalan Sign Language was held,  
organized by the Catalan Federation for the Deaf with the support of the teaching staff at the Catalan  
Sign Language Laboratory of Pompeu Fabra University and the Ministry of Culture.

The Ministry of Social Welfare and Family awards an annual grant for communication (interpreting service and interpreter/guide) for students with hearing or visual impairments over  
the age of 16.

The Consell de Cent secondary school in Barcelona offers training for interpreters and interpreter-guides in Catalan sign language.

University education

The Ministry of Economy and Knowledge has organized an annual line of grants for universities in the Catalan system to promote projects that guarantee equal rights for students with  
disabilities (UNIDISCAT).

Pompeu Fabra University has added the subject of Catalan sign language to its degree in applied linguistics and the degree in translation and interpreting.

The University of Barcelona offered a supplementary course at level A1 of LSC to a total of 50  
students from the courses of philology, translation and interpreting, geography, journalism,  
social work, teaching and education, amongst others.

In 2014, the course was extended to level A2 of LSC. 
The University of Vic–Central University of Catalonia validated LSC courses as free choice credits through the Association for the Deaf of Vic and its surrounding region.

The Autonomous University of Barcelona offers students the Guia bàsica per a la comunicació  
en LSC. Signem
(Basic Guide for Communicating in LSC).

Training personnel in Public Administration

The Catalan Government offers training in Catalan sign language to staff working in Public Administration.  
— Three editions of the beginners’ course in Catalan sign Language were held: two in Barcelona and one in Girona, for a total of 60 students.

— Basic training was offered to healthcare personnel.

— A module A course was given to the Mossos d’Esquadra Police force.

 

102   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Catalan sign language services

The Girona Citizens’ Advice Office offers an LSC interpreting service. In 2014, 95 people used it. 
The Ministry of Justice offers an LSC interpreting service for the Courts of Justice of Catalonia. In  
2014, 213 interpreting services were provided, 43% more than the previous year (149).

Interpreting services were provided at the Government’s press conferences, the International  
Symposium on Linguistic Rights, the Summit of the European Association for Terminology and  
the Pompeu Fabra Awards, amongst other events.

The Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya (National Museum of Art of Catalonia) has a free videoguide service in sign language (a PDA with a tactile screen that plays videos in Catalan, Spanish  
and international sign language and has subtitles in Catalan, Spanish and English).

Every day at 9.00 am from Monday to Friday, the autonomous television station TVC offers five  
minute news bulletins with an LSC interpreter on the Els Matins morning programme (TV3 and  
3/24) and the evening news on 3/24 also has an LSC interpreter, which is also available on the  
websites of the Catalan Audiovisual Media Corporation.

 

103   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Occitan; Aranese in Val d’Aran

T 
he data on Aranese were based on the Population Survey on Language Use 2013. 
The population surveyed in the Val d’Aran consisted of residents aged over 15: 8,617 people,  
representing 85.4% of the total population.

The Language Policy Report of 2013 presented the main results from this survey, based on which  
an in-depth analysis was done this year with this 2014 Report highlighting the key factors.

The population of Aran 
According to the municipal census of inhabitants of 2014, the population of Val d’Aran was 9,993  
people, of whom 3,673 (36.8%) were born there, 2,085 (20.9%) were born in the rest of Catalonia,  
2,073 (20.7%) elsewhere in Spain and 2,162 (21.6%) abroad.

The language  
situation  
of Aranese  
Occitan

 population % of total

 of country foreign

  population

Romania 584 34.9 %

Morocco 170 10.1 %

Algeria 132 7.9 %

France 87 5.2 %

Bolivia 85 5.1 %

Portugal 77 4.6 %

Colombia 66 3.9 %

Dominican 
Republic 62 3.7 %

Italy 47 2.8 %

Argentina 40 2.4 %

Other countries 325 19.4 %

TOTAL 1,675 100.0%

* Population with foreign nationality

Foreign population* by country,  
Aran 2014

Val d’Aran Rest of Catalonia Rest of Spain Abroad

Population according  
to place of birth.  
Val d’Aran.  
2000-2014

Source: Prepared by the DGPL based on IDESCAT data.

100 %

50 %

0 %

23.3 %

20.4 %

20.3 %

36.0 %

24.3 %

20.4 %

20.0 %

35.3 %

23.7 %

21.3 %

20.3 %

34.8 %

18.5 %

23.5 %

21.5 %

36.5 %

12.5 %

25.6 %

23.1 %

38.7 %

7.6 %

26.6 %

23.9 %

41.9 %

5.0 %

27.5 %

24.0 %

43.5 %

2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2014 2012

 Source: Idescat.

21.6 %

20.7 %

20.9 %

36.8 %

 

104   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Knowledge of Aranese Occitan 
A large proportion of the population have acquired skills in Aranese Occitan regardless of their origin. Today, 80% of the inhabitants of Val d’Aran understand Aranese while more than half can speak  
and read it and a third can write it.

Knowledge of Catalan in Val d’Aran is much higher, as more than 90% of the population understand it and almost 70% can speak it. 
Knowledge of Spanish in Val d’Aran exceeds 95% in all language skills.

80 % of the  
population of Val d’Aran  
understand Aranese  
Occitan
{ }

Understand it Can speak it Can read it Can write it

Source: EULP2013. Population of 15 years and over.

100 %

90 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

Knowledge of Aranese, Catalan and Spanish in Val d’Aran. 2008-2013

aranese occitan catalan spanish

78.2 % 80.7 %

90.7 %

100 % 99.4 %

91.0 %

2008 2008 2008 2013 2013 2013

56.8 % 55.6 %

70.1 %

100 % 98.8 %

69.7 %

59.4 % 59.3 %

71.9 %

96.8 % 97.2 %

73.4 %

34.8 % 34.9 %

49.6 % 49.8 %

96.1 % 96.5 %

 

105   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

First language, language of identification and habitual language 
In 2013, people aged over 15 whose first or identification language was Aranese Occitan represented  
between 20% and 22% of the population, but just under 18% used it as an habitual language. 
With regard to other languages, almost 16% of the population use Catalan as their first, identification and habitual language while around 45% use Spanish as their first and identification language. Spanish is used by 55.1% of people as their habitual language.

Since 2008 there has been a drop in the number of people who use Aranese Occitan as a first,  
identification and habitual language.

No information

Catalan

Occitan

Occitan and another  
language

Spanish

Galician

Romanian

Another language

Another combination

First language,  
habitual language  
and identification  
language of the people  
of Val d’Aran.  
2008-2013

100 %

90 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

first language identification language habitual language

2008 2008 2008 2013 2013 2013

22.4 % 27.1 % 23.4 %

2.2 %

1.2 %

2.1 %

14.6 %

15.0 %

16.0 %

37.3 %

36.0 % 38.0 %

5.6 % 3.3 % 1.5 %

5.3 % 6.2 % 5.4 %

9.2 % 8.3 %

6.4 %

3.4 % 2.8 % 7.0 %

20.8 % 21.7 % 17.6 %

2.2 % 1.5 %

3.8 %

15.8 % 16.5 %

16.4 %

44.1 % 45.4 % 55.1 %

3.5 % 2.3 %

0.8 %

5.5 %

4.3 %

2.7 %

4.7 %

1.7 % 5.6 % 
3.0 % 1.8 % 1.6 %

Source: EULP2013. Population of 15 years and over.

 

106   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Language use in consumer and service environments 
Spanish is the main language in consumer and service environments (between 40% and 60%). The  
exclusive use of Occitan ranges between 2% and 20%. However, the native language of Aran is used  
more in combination with Catalan and/or Spanish: the use of Occitan together with Catalan and/or  
Spanish is 40% in dealing with the local administration, 35% in stores and around 20% in banks and  
major shopping centres.

With the local Public Administration, the exclusive use of Occitan reaches 21.4%.

100 % 50 % 90 % 40 % 80 % 30 % 70 % 20 % 60 % 10 % 0 %

Language used  
in consumer  
and services  
environments by  
people in Val d’Aran.  
2013

Local administration

Banks and savings banks

Stores and small retailers

Doctor

Catalan Government  
administration

Large shopping centres

State Administration

21.4 % 6.3 % 5.1 % 5.6 % 8.0 % 41.2 % 12.1 %

15.7 % 45.7 % 15.6 % 7.3 % 5.1 % 6.7 %

5.8 % 8.7 %

7.5 %

30.1 % 44.2 % 16.9 %

23.1 % 50.2 % 7.3 % 10.7 %

13.2 % 60.0 % 21.3 %

5.3 %

9.5 % 56.7 % 18.2 %

16.7 % 6.9 % 42.9 % 13.9 %

Catalan and Occitan

Occitan only

Other combinations  
with Occitan

Catalan, Spanish  
and Occitan

Spanish and Occitan

Spanish only

Catalan only

Catalan and Spanish

Other combinations

Source: EULP2013. Population of 15 years and over.

 

107   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

A 
ranese Occitan is the vehicular language of teaching in Val d’Aran and is also a subject on the  
official curriculum to guarantee that children living in this region will learn it. 
The teaching of Aranese to adults in Val d’Aran is the remit of the Conselh Generau 
d’Aran (General Council of Aran) which receives economic support from the Ministry of Culture.

During the 2013-2014 academic year, the Conselh Generau d’Aran has organised four courses  
at levels A, A1, B and C in Vielha, three courses in Barcelona and two in Lleida, with a total of  
108 people enrolled.

In 2014, 223 new students registered for online lessons in Aranese. Since 2010, there have  
been a total of 1,591 students.

Outside the region of Aran courses are also organised with the support of the Ministry of Culture.

The Occitan-Catalan Brotherhood Centre, with the support of the Ministry of Culture, organized six Occitan courses in Barcelona, for which 57 people enrolled, and as an awareness-raising initiative it also organized an Occitan Dictation event in Barcelona in which 60  
people took part.

The University of Lleida offers a Degree in Catalan and Occitan studies. In 2014, 27 students on  
degree courses took the option of Occitan language and literature.

Mobile app of the University Conversation Guides 
This interactive app for mobile devices is a language resource to facilitate university students’ ability  
to communicate in a variety of situations, especially in the case of mobility programme students  
coming to Catalonia or local students going to study at a foreign university. In December 2014, Occitan was added to the tool.

Language Volunteering programme 
The Voluntariat per la llengua (Language Volunteering) programme was extended to Aran in 2008  
since when 63 language pairs in Aranese have been formed.

Promoting  
knowledge  
of Aranese
108 people

enrolled for adult  
education classes  
in Aranese
{ }

1,591 students  
of online courses  
in Aranese
{ }

 

108   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Occitan Film Festival 
The seventh Occitan Film Festival 2014, organized by the General Directorate for Language Policy,  
featured audiovisual creations shown across Catalonia and the Occitan region, with the collaboration of Catalan and Occitan institutions and companies to promote awareness of the situation of  
Occitan in Catalonia and to promote cinematographic creation.

There was a significant increase in the number of screening venues at this seventh edition,  
reaching 31 (up from 19 in 2013), as well as an increase in audience numbers across the region, with  
1,278 spectators in total. The General Directorate of Language Policy also promoted the subtitling  
into Catalan of the films presented.

The collaboration of the Chair of Occitan Studies was a key factor in the 2014 edition of the Film  
Festival, as the students of Occitan themselves translated the films’ subtitled into Catalan. 
The Film Festival remained true to its determination to have a presence in the whole Occitan  
region, including Catalonia (Arenys de Mar, Barcelona, Canet de Mar, Cassà de la Selva, Castelló  
d’Empúries, Girona, Artedó —la Seu d’Urgell—, Les, Josa i Tuixén, Lleida, Premià de Mar, Reus, Sant  
Llorenç de Morunys, Solsona, Tarragona, Tolosa, Tortosa, Tremp and Vielha), France (Aurinhac,  
Aush, Bordèu, L’Isla de Baish, Masseuva, Montalban, Odèn, Pàmias, Prada de Conflent and Vilagalhenc) and Italy (Ostana and Roccasparvera).

XI Congress of the International Association of Occitan Studies 
The Chair of Occitan Studies at the University of Lleida organized the eleventh edition of the Congress with the support of the General Directorate of Language Policy of the Ministry of Culture. This  
was the first time that the Congress was held in a territory where Occitan is actually the official  
language. It was attended by 200 delegates, 150 of whom presented abstracts. Some 60 universities  
from all over the world were represented: 13 from France, 12 from Spain, seven from the USA, eight  
from Italy, five from Germany and five from the UK. It was also attended by professors and university  
researchers from Canada, Japan, Russia, Belgium, Brazil and the Netherlands.

This is the first time that Occitan was the primary language for delegates, who gave their presentations in eight vehicular languages: Occitan, French, Catalan, Italian, Spanish, English, Galician/ 
Portuguese and Aragonese.

The General Directorate for Language Policy organized a round table on the language policy  
of Occitan in Catalonia and presented two papers: «Knowledge and Use of Aranese» and «The Legal  
Status of Occitan: from protected to official status.»

 

Encouraging  
the use  
of Aranese

The 7th

Occitan Film  
Festival
was held  
in 31 locations
{ }

60 universities around  
the world took part in

the XI Congress

of the

International  
Association  
of Occitan  
Studies


}

 

109   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Robèrt Lafont Award 
The Robèrt Lafont Award was set up in 2010 to be awarded every two years to any individual, company or organization that has stood out for its protection, projection and promotion of Occitan  
anywhere in the linguistic domain.

In 2014 the award was given to the grammarian and lexicographer Jacme Taupiac. The jury paid  
tribute to his track record in studying, researching and promoting the Occitan language in general  
and its special relationship with Aran in particular. This year’s award was given at the same time as  
the academic homage to Robèrt Lafont organized by the International Association of Occitan Studies (AIEO) as part of the Association’s eleventh Congress.

Llanterna Digital Awards 
At the ninth edition of the Awards, 24 short films were presented, two of which were in Occitan and  
22 in Catalan. Five prizes were awarded in the following categories: primary and secondary schools,  
members of the university community, and an open category.

The awards recognise the use of Catalan and Occitan in short films made by secondary or university students which encourage people to reflect about the language situation, and are directed at  
every member of the Catalan and Occitan language communities worldwide.

The Llanterna Digital awards are the initiative of the Coordinator of Language Services in Lleida, members of which come from the General Directorate for Language Policy; the Consortium for  
Language Normalisation, the CNL of Lleida; the Regional Education, Health and Justice Services of  
the Catalan Government; the Language Service of the University of Lleida; the l’Escola Oficial d’Idiomes de Lleida (Official Language Academy of Lleida), and the Language Service of the Workers’  
Commission trade union (CCOO).

Recognition of the Institute of Aranese Studies as the official language academy  
in Catalonia for Occitan, Aranese in Aran
 
On the occasion of the Decree granting official status to the Institute of Aranese Studies as an academy and linguistic authority for Aranese Occitan in Aran, an event was held at the headquarters of  
the Conselh Generau d’Aran.

The purpose of the Institute of Aranese Studies is to conduct high-level research on Aranese  
and establish its regulatory criteria in accordance with the principles of Loís Alibèrt’s Occitan Grammar and the orthographic rules of Aranese as an integral part of the Occitan linguistic and cultural space. It will also collaborate with academic, research and cultural organizations recognized by  
public institutions in the Occitan area on establishing the linguistic guidelines for the Occitan language as a whole.

Award of the  
academic and  
linguistic authority

of the Institute

of Aranese  
Studies
{ }

 

110   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

With the passing of this Decree, the Institute of Aranese Studies becomes the first Occitan body  
to hold an official academic rank. The decree also invests the Institute with the authority to provide  
advice in Catalonia on matters concerning the Occitan language – Aranese in Aran – in the sphere  
of public administrations and the organizations that report to them, public and private schools and  
publicly-owned media.

Aranese in the media 
The Corporació Catalana de Mitjans Audiovisuals, SA (Catalan Audiovisual Media Corporation-CCMA)  
broadcast a total of 1,926 hours of content live in Aranese (TV and radio). If this were to include the  
digital content consumed on demand, i.e. not live, this figure would rise by 1,935 hours and 10 minutes. Thus in total, across all its media, more than 3,861 hours of broadcasting in Aranese were offered  
in 2014.

With regard to specific programming, the slots of the CCMA, SA in Aranese were as follows:

On the television:

Throughout 2014, the TV station 3/24 broadcast a general news programme of 15 minutes in  
Aranese from Monday to Friday featuring the main news stories; moreover, the news roundup is broadcast in the whole of Catalonia to further spread the recognition of Aranese beyond  
its borders.

The news offering in Aranese is rounded off with a retransmission of the Friday edition of TN  
comarques (regional news) for Val d’Aran lasting an average of eight minutes.

On the radio:

Morning news between 08.00 and 08.30 from Monday to Friday except in summer. 
Aran, meddia aranés. Broadcast from Monday to Sunday from 12.00 to 13.00 and 19.00 to  
20.00 all year round.

Retransmissions of parliamentary processes were broadcast in Val d’Aran which particularly  
affect Aran. Live broadcasts and retransmissions of important events were also shown.

Digital media:

On the website http://www.ccma.cat/aranes/, users can access content related to Val d’Aran,  
either produced in or dubbed into Aranese: the news round-up on 3/24, the TN comarques slot for  
Val d’Aran, the news on Catalunya Informació and the videos of productions that Televisió de Catalunya has broadcast in Aranese.

Aranese, featured on

both radio and  
television
{ }

 

111   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Gencat website 
In 2014, the Catalan Government published its new gencat website which, for the first time, has  
been completely translated into Aranese Occitan, with the exception of the Latest News section  
which is only in Catalan, Spanish and English. This entails all the following content:

— Homepage: http://web.gencat.cat/oc/inici/index.html 
— 24 topics: http://web.gencat.cat/oc/temes/ 
— The Procedures section which is equivalent to the electronic head office: https://seu.gencat. 
cat/oc/index.html 
— The Generalitat section containing content on the history of the Catalan Government:

http://web.gen- cat.cat/oc/generalitat/ 
— The Contact section with a contact form and sections on how to contact the Catalan Government (telephone, email, citizens’ advice offices, etc.): https://ovt.gencat.cat/gsitfc/AppJava/

generic/conqxsGeneric.do?webFormId=391&set-locale=an_ES

On the homepage there is a section entitled «In Catalonia now» featuring news articles and  
links which is replicated in the Occitan version and hence translated.

  In relation to the publication in the DOGC (Official Gazette of the Catalan Government) in  
Aranese Occitan, in 2014 a set of 144 documents were published, which is higher than that of  
previous years as shown in the following table:

The corporate portal of the Council of Public Diplomacy of Catalonia (DIPLOCAT) reinforces  
its multilingual nature with a new edition in Aranese Occitan. The new edition includes all  
the information on DIPLOCAT and its activities, as well as content of an informative nature  
on the situation of Catalonia. This project was instigated with the collaboration of the Conselh Generau d’Aran and the General Directorate of Language Policy.

DOGC 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

Documents 127 97 92 95 144

 

112   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Centenary of the death of Frederic Mistral  
In 2014 the death of the great Provençal poet Frederic Mistral (Malhana, 1830-1914), who won the  
Nobel Prize for Literature in 1904 and exerted a huge influence in Catalonia and its relationship with  
Provence, was commemorated in the Occitan region and Catalonia. 

As part of the commemorative acts, on 28 March the Ministry of Culture put on an official  
reception in Palau Moja, the repository of the 2nd Holy Cup, the symbol of Occitan-Catalan friendship, for a delegation from the Félibrige literary and cultural association headed by their capoulié  
(president).

The General Directorate of Language Policy also collaborated with the Occitan-Catalan Brotherhood Centre (CAOC) in organizing a conference by professor Jaume Vallvehí i Altimira: 
«The origins of Frederic Mistral’s dissemination in Catalonia: the Mataró group and the unpublished translation of Mirèio», about relations between Catalan Renaissance and Occitan Félibrige,  
and also participated in other events organized by the Occitan-Catalan Brotherhood Centre and the  
Félibrige Maintenance Association of Languedoc-Roussillon.

Collaboration agreement with the University of Lleida 
The Ministry of Culture signed a collaboration agreement with the University of Lleida to give it  
access, via the Chair of Occitan Studies, to the material of the Occitan Film Festival for scientific, educational and linguistic research purposes. It also facilitated free public sessions of the Film Festival  
as part of the dissemination activities of the Chair.

Collaboration agreement with the Federation of Occitan Convergence  
Organizations
 
The Ministry of Culture and the Federation of Occitan Convergence Associations signed a collaboration agreement to foster the Occitan language and the cultural events and products expressed in  
that language. The agreement requires the two institutions to collaborate in organizing and disseminating activities to promote the Occitan language and share educational experiences and strategies  
for fostering the language and normalizing its social use, creating online linguistic resources and  
cooperating on linguistic and cultural projects to disseminate manifestations of Occitan expression.

Convergència Occitana is a body that represents the Occitan movement in Toulouse (Languedoc) and comprises more than eighty Occitan and cultural organizations and associations in the city  
and its region.

 

113   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Literary competitions 
In 2014, the Conselh Generau d’Aran organized the following:

The XXIV edition of the Mn. Condò Sambeat Literary Awards for which a total of 149 works  
were submitted, aimed at participants aged 9 to 17 years old.

The XIII edition of the Aran Literature Awards for people aged over 18, for which 14 works  
were submitted.

Catalan-Occitan Week 
In 2014 the XII Occitan-Catalan Week was held in Vielha, dedicated to Frederic Mistral on the occasion of the commemoration of Mistral Year. The programme of this edition featured the most recent  
publications of the Conselh Generau as well as sessions on Occitan literature to provide an in-depth  
look at Aranese and Occitan as a reference.

Catalan-Occitan-Aranese-Spanish machine translation service 
The Catalan-Occitan-Catalan and Spanish-Occitan-Spanish machine translation service is now  
available on the website of the Generalitat and can be used for online text translations. The service  
can also be added to websites as a translation button.

During 2014, 9,623,725 words were translated and 208,077 service requests were received.

Source: General Directorate for Language Policy.

direction number

of translation of words

 translated

Catalan > Occitan  3,923,168

Occitan > Catalan 791,632

Catalan > Aranese 830,234

Aranese > Catalan 351,899

Spanish > Occitan 920,398

Occitan > Spanish 951,113

Spanish > Aranese 1,060,910

Aranese > Spanish 794,371

 

114   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

The legal framework

D 
uring 2014, numerous new laws came into force which directly or indirectly affect the Catalan  
language. These are detailed below along with certain issues still pending resolution, further

development or implementation.

Catalan language

Place names

The Town Council of Santa Maria de Corcó has requested the restitution of the name l’Esquirol as  
the name of the town. DOGC no. 6637, of 4 June 2014, published Ruling GRI/1232/2014, of 28 May,  
agreeing to the town’s change of name from Santa Maria de Corcó to l’Esquirol.

Law 13/2014, of 30 October 2014, on accessibility.

In order to include deaf and/or blind people in the framework of the Law, provisions were added on  
Catalan sign language (LSC) and oral language relevant to these collectives.

Law 16/2014, of 4 December 2014, on the Foreign Action of Catalonia and its Relations  
with the European Union

This Law establishes one of its purposes to be the international promotion of the Catalan language and  
culture. In this respect, it states that the Government has to empower the Ramon Llull Institute as an  
agent for the international promotion of the Catalan language and culture expressed in Catalan, and  
that it should coordinate these actions with the Government Delegations abroad and with the European Union and the sector offices of the Government abroad. The legal text also proposes improving  
the legal status of Catalan in the European Union so that it can be used in European institutions and  
given official recognition.

Finally, the Law also contains references to the external dissemination of Aranese Occitan.

Legislation  
corresponding  
to 2014

Catalan  
legislation

 

115   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Sworn translators and interpreters. Decree Law 8/2014, of 23 December 2014, establishes  
the creation of a Registry of Sworn Translators and Interpreters to appear before the judicial  
bodies based in Catalonia.

This law transposes Directive 2010/64/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 October 2010 on the right to interpretation and translation in criminal proceedings, which recommends  
that Member States should promote the creation of registries of independent and properly qualified  
translators and interpreters. The Registry that has been established will be available not only to judicial  
bodies based in Catalonia but also to the police authorities, the public prosecutors and the lawyers  
involved in any part of the process.

Amendment of Catalan language certificates / Decree 3/2014, of 7 January 2014, amending  
Decree 152/2001, of 29 May 2001, on the evaluation and certification of Catalan knowledge.

This Decree modified the content, the test and the measurement instruments of the Advanced (C2)  
Catalan examination which up to then had also been referred to as Level D. This concludes the adaptation of all the Catalan language certificates to the Common European Framework of Reference for  
Languages (MECR). The Decree also amends the identification codes of the different levels of Catalan  
certificates to adapt them to the same identifying codes used by the MECR: A1, A2, B1, B2, C1 and C2.

Certificate of knowledge of legal language / Decree 180/2014, of 30 December 2014,  
on the certificate of knowledge of legal language (Level J)

The Decree restores the certificate of knowledge of this specialist language (removed by Decree 3/2006,  
of 17 January 2006) due to the need to have some certification of knowledge of the Catalan language  
that could be viewed as having merit in the various processes of recruitment and providing jobs within  
the field of the Administration of Justice. The certificate will be issued by the General Directorate for  
Language Policy and the Centre for Legal Studies and Specialized Training of the Ministry of Justice.

Ramon Llull Institute / Government Agreement 12/2014, of 28 January 2014, amending  
the Articles of Association of the Ramon Llull Institute

Basically, the reason for this amendment is so that the Articles of Association will reflect the withdrawal  
of the Institute from the Balearic Islands Government, on the one hand, and the its admission to the  
Barcelona City Council on the other.

 

116   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Reception / Decree 150/2014, of 18 November 2014, on reception services for immigrants  
and returnees to Catalonia

The Decree envisages that, as part of the reception process, training should be provided to achieve  
skills in Catalan and Spanish, and in Aranese in Aran, to help people obtain the necessary language  
knowledge required to issue a reception certificate. The Decree also states that the language of promotion, information and support should be in Catalan, and in Aranese Occitan in Aran. The Decree  
also establishes that professionals working in the initial reception service must be able to prove their  
knowledge of Catalan with a C1 certificate as well as their knowledge of Spanish.

Amendment of the Census of Organizations that Foster the Catalan Language /  
Order CLT/359/2014, of 4 December 2014, modifying Order CLT/59/2012, of 22 February 2012,  
on the Census of Organizations that Foster the Catalan Language.

The Order introduces the possibility of electronically processing requests for inclusion in the Census  
and adds a new reason for excluding an organization from the Census.

Aranese Occitan in Aran

Institute of Aranese Studies / Decree 12/2014, of 21 January 2014, granting the Institute  
of Aranese Studies official status as an academy and linguistic authority on Occitan, the language  
of Era Val d’Aran and an official language of Catalonia.

The Decree recognises the Institute of Aranese Studies as the linguistic authority on Aranese Occitan.  
It is also the reference body on the Occitan language for Public Administrations and the organizations  
that report to it, public and private schools and the publicly-owned media in Catalonia. For this reason,  
the scope of action of the Institute now embraces the whole of Catalonia.

The Decree also establishes a mandate for the Institute of Aranese Studies to collaborate with  
academic, research and cultural organizations recognized by public institutions in the Occitan region  
in establishing the linguistic regulations of reference for the Occitan language as a whole, in accordance with the principles of Occitan grammar of Loís Alibèrt and the orthographic rules of Aranese.

This Decree complies with the mandate that in this respect was envisaged by Article 4.3 of Law  
35/2010, of 1 October 2010, on Occitan, Aranese in Aran. The Institute of Aranese Studies was set up  
in 2002. In 2008 it was recognised as the linguistic authority on Aranese in Aran by the Agreement of  
the Plenary of the Conselh Generau d’Aran (General Council of Aran).

 

117   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Ruling JUS/2518/2014, of 6 November 2014 on the entry in the Registries of Academies  
of the Catalan Government of the Articles of Association of the Institute of Aranese Studies  
as the Aranese Academy of the Occitan language.

This Ruling, which transcribes the Articles of Association of the Institute of Aranese Studies, constitutes  
the corollary of the previous Decree, 12/2014, and culminates the process of reform of this institution  
as the linguistic authority and official academy for the Aranese version of the Occitan language in  
Catalonia.

Certificates of Aranese / Ruling on the definitive approval of the amendment of the Decree  
regulating certificates of Aranese

The Plenary of the Conselh Generau d’Aran, in its ordinary session held on 28 April 2014, initially  
approved the amendment of the Decree regulating the certificates issued by the Conselh Generau  
d’Aran accrediting knowledge of Aranese, which is not definitively approved. 
This Decree overrules the Permanent Board of Aranese and establishes the following five certificates and a diploma:

— Certificate A for basic oral knowledge of Aranese (Aranese Occitan) 
— Certificate A1 for basic oral and written knowledge of Aranese (Aranese Occitan) 
— Certificate B for elementary oral and written knowledge of Aranese (Aranese Occitan) 
— Certificate C for intermediate oral and written knowledge of Aranese (Aranese Occitan) 
— Certificate D for advanced oral and written knowledge of Aranese (Aranese Occitan) 
— Diploma for Master of Aranese

Occitan language and culture / Ruling ENS/1790/2014, of 23 July 2014, amending Ruling  
ENS/1432/2013, of 27 June 2013, on the syllabus of compulsory secondary education  
and Baccalaureate courses in schools where a distance learning option can be taken in order  
to incorporate optional subject matter on Occitan language and culture

Up until now, the optional language subjects, which did not include Occitan, were: French, German,  
Italian and English. The inclusion of this academic option on the introduction to Occitan language  
and culture is available as a distance learning module from the Open Institute of Catalonia (IOC).

Occitan language / Resolution of the University of Lleida of 7 November 2014 ordering  
the publication of a syllabus for the qualification of a degree in Catalan and Occitan Studies

This syllabus was published for the qualification of Degree in Catalan and Occitan studies at the University of Lleida. It replaces the Degree in Catalan Philology which was introduced in the 2009-2010  
academic year in accordance with the same Resolution.

 

118   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Consumer / Law 3/2014, of 27 March 2014, modifies the consolidated text of the General  
Consumer Protection Law and other complementary laws, approved by Royal Legislative  
Decree 1/2007, of 16 November 2007.

The new aspects introduced by this legal text, compared to the previous one, with regard to language  
regulation are as follows.

— It makes it mandatory to provide consumers and users with pre-contractual information at  
least in Spanish, and also makes it compulsory to inform consumers and users about the  
language or languages in which the contract can be formalized when this is different from the  
language in which the pre-contractual information has been offered.

— It also includes the obligation to use Spanish in distance contracts for the information that  
is seen as necessary to provide for consumers and users. It also makes it mandatory to use  
Spanish in contracts formalized outside the establishment for the information that is seen as  
necessary to provide for consumers and users.

In short, the modification of the consolidated text of the General Consumer Protection Law  
entails the imposition of Spanish in a certain type of document (pre-contractual information) which  
was not previously a requirement.

Implementation of the LOMQE / Royal Decree 591/2014, of 11 July 2014, regulating  
the administrative procedures in respect of the recognition of compensation of the costs  
of schooling envisaged in Section 4 of the thirty-eighth additional provision of Organic  
Law 2/2006, of 3 May 2006, on education.

The term "compensation for the costs of schooling" in the Royal Decree refers to the cost of a private  
school where Spanish is the vehicular language, provided that the students in question cannot find this  
type of educational offering in the public education system. This provision, against which the Catalan  
Government has lodged a positive conflict of jurisdiction appeal with the Constitutional Court, envisages that the abovementioned costs should be met by the corresponding Autonomous Communities.

Sworn interpreters / Order AEC/2125/2014, of 6 November 2014, establishing the regulations  
for examinations for the qualification of sworn translator/interpreter.

This Order replaces another order of 1996 in order to adapt to the changes in the regulatory standards of  
sworn State translators and interpreters. In this respect, it is worth noting that the Catalan Government  
has its own law which regulates the activities of these professionals. It does not include any reference  
to other sworn translators and interpreters "qualified" by Autonomous Communities, or registries or  
the possibility of recognizing them, or any reference to the other official languages in Spain. It states  
that the stamp data must by necessity only be in Spanish.

State legislation

 

119   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Council of Europe. European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages  
In view of the drafting of the fourth European Council report on compliance by the Spanish State of  
the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, the Ministry of Culture has sent the Spanish  
Government the fourth periodic report on compliance with the European Charter for 
Regional or Minority Languages in Catalonia corresponding to the period 2010-2012.

This document, which for the first time the Generalitat has also sent to the Committee of Experts  
of the European Council, details the following aspects:

a) Updated information on the current situation and the knowledge and use of the Catalan and  
Occitan languages.

b) Explanation of the language policy of the Government of Catalonia.

c) Information on new laws.

d) A complaint about the obstacles being placed in the path of the implementation of the European Charter.

The IV Final Report drawn up by the State, processed by the European Council, has systematically and fully omitted the information on the opposition of the State’s language policy to the Catalan  
language in Catalonia and in other Catalan-speaking territories. Even so, the General Directorate of  
Language Policy has drawn up a document, which can be referred to online, entitled Greuges contra  
la llengua catalana 2010–2013 (Offences Against the Catalan Language), based on data provided by  
the General Directorate itself for this IV Spanish Report to follow up on the implementation of the  
European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages: (http://llengua.gencat.cat/web/sites/llengua/. 
content/documents/legislacio/recull_de_normativa/ altres/arxius/greuges_2010-2013.pdf)

The Committee of Experts of the European Council published on 24 October 2012 the third report  
on compliance by the Spanish State with the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages  
relating to the period 2006-2009.

Occitan, the official language of the Pyrenees-Mediterranean Euroregion 
At the Euroregion Meeting on 27 October 2014 in Mallorca, the modification to the statutes to incorporate the Occitan language as an official language alongside Catalan, French and Spanish was approved. From that date on, Occitan is effectively an official language in this organization for regional  
cooperation, made up of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, Languedoc-Roussillon and the Midi-Pyrenees.

The official status of Occitan was promoted by the Catalan Government which formalized a  
petition in February 2014, in accordance with Resolution 444/X of the Parliament of Catalonia, in  
November 2013. For the proposal to be made effective it was necessary to modify the statutes of the  
Euroregion, which was requested by the Secretariat for Foreign Affairs with the support of the General  
Directorate for Language Policy.

Europe

 

120   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

O 
f the court rulings issued in 2014 that affect the regulatory corpus in the legal sphere of the Catalan  
language, the following are worth highlighting:

Language of instruction

Supreme Court Ruling of 27 January 2014

Dismissal of the appeal lodged by the Catalan Government against two interlocutory rulings of the  
Supreme Court of Justice of Catalonia, of 9 January 2013 and 6 March 2013. The first required the Ministry of Education to adapt the language teaching system with regard to the children of the claimant to  
also give Spanish the status of the vehicular language of instruction. The second interlocutory ruling  
confirmed the previous one, dismissing the appeal lodged against it.

Requirement to implement Spanish for 25% of teaching

Interlocutory ruling of the Supreme Court of Justice of Catalonia of 30 January 2014

In the interlocutory ruling, the Court established a minimum quota of 25% of Spanish as the vehicular language of instruction in courses and classes where the children of the claimant study, without  
prejudice to considering Catalan as the core language of the educational system.

Supreme Court Ruling of 30 June 2014

The Ruling dismissed the cessation appeal lodged by the Catalan Government against the two interlocutory rulings of the Supreme Court of Justice of Catalonia, dated 31 July and 4 October 2013, which  
required the Ministry of Education to take the precautionary measures necessary to adapt the language  
education system with regard to the children of the claimant, considering Spanish to also be the vehicular language of instruction in Catalonia alongside Catalan. These precautionary measures were  
adopted until such time as a ruling was issued in response to the contentious-administrative appeal  
lodged by the father of the students at the same Supreme Court of Justice of Catalonia.

Along the same lines as the previous case, there are various other rulings by the same Supreme  
Court in relation to appeals lodged for the same reason by other claimants before the Supreme Court  
of Justice of Catalonia, on which rulings have not yet been issued.

Jurisdictional  
action

Court rulings

 

121   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Supreme Court Ruling of 31 October 2014

The Ruling dismissed the appeal lodged by the Impulso Ciudadano Association against the Ruling of  
the Contentious-Administrative Chamber of the Supreme Court of Justice of Catalonia of 17 October  
2012 which, in turn, dismissed the appeal lodged by the same association against Decree 155/2010, of  
2 November 2010, on the management of public schools and professional management personnel. The  
Supreme Court therefore upheld and confirmed the Ruling of the Supreme Court of Justice of Catalonia,  
while again rejecting the claims of the abovementioned association, which centred on its objection  
to Article 6.d) of the abovementioned Decree which establishes that Catalan should be the vehicular  
language of education, administration and communication used normally in the school’s activities.

Lack of legitimacy of Convivencia Cívica Catalana (Catalan Civic Coexistence)  
in various causes relating to the regulations for application and enrolment for  
requesting the habitual language of the school

Ruling of the Supreme Court of Justice of Catalonia of 29 September 2014

The abovementioned association lodged an appeal against Resolution ENS/315/2012, of 23 February  
2012, approving the regulations for the application and enrolment of students at schools in the Catalan Education Service and other educational centres, in the different education systems supported  
by public funds, for the 2013-2014 academic year.

It called for the contested ruling to be declared null and void with reference to Article 19.7 (information on the language policy of the school and the possibility of individual language teaching for  
the student) and the official form for requesting pre-enrolment. It also called for the Catalan Government to be ordered to replace the annulled precept and request by others that would guarantee the  
inclusion of Spanish as a vehicular language of instruction on an equal footing with Catalan for all  
students in charter schools; the effective exercise of students’ right to receive their initial education in  
their habitual language, whether Catalan or Spanish, under identical conditions in both cases; and the  
inclusion of an official form for application and enrolment that asks the student’s habitual language  
as well as information to be provided by the parents at the time of enrolment.

The Court declared the appeal inadmissible due to the lack of legitimacy of the claimant  
association.

Ruling of the Supreme Court of Justice of Catalonia of 22 September 2014

It also declared the inadmissibility, due to lack of legitimacy, of the appeal lodged by the same association, in this case against Ruling ENS/260/2014, of 7 February 2014, approving the regulations for the  
application and enrolment of students in Catalan Education Service schools and other educational  
centres in the different educational systems supported by public funds for the 2014-2015 academic  
year. The challenge was based on the same reasons as the previous Ruling.

 

122   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Liability for lack of schooling in Spanish

Rulings of the Supreme Court of Justice of Catalonia on 30 September, 10 October, 16 October,  
28 November and 23 December 2014

All these rulings rejected the appeals lodged by parents of students whose requests for their children  
to be schooled in Spanish as the vehicular language of instruction had been dismissed previously.  
The Court deemed that the Catalan Government had no state liability for the complaint lodged by  
the claimants, given that it could not be proved that their children had suffered any kind of prejudice  
from not being schooled in Spanish as the vehicular language of instruction.

Protocols for language use in the healthcare sector

Protocols for language use in the healthcare sector

This Ruling, on 2 May 2014, was in favour of the Catalan Government in the case of the appeal lodged  
by the Impulso Ciudadano association against the document entitled Protocol for Language Uses in  
the Public Healthcare Sector in Catalonia, and also in the case of a second document entitled Protocol  
for Language Uses by the Catalan Government and its Public Sector.

The Court accepted the arguments put forward by the Catalan Government and declared the  
inadmissibility of the appeal presented, given that the abovementioned documents cannot be challenged as they cannot be regarded as administrative acts or general regulations (or protocols, as they  
appear in the documents) but simply as circulars. Furthermore, the Court also declared the appeal  
inadmissible due to the fact that the claimant association, to which the court costs were charged, is  
not legitimately entitled, either for its purposes or as a hypothetical injured party, to appeal against  
the aforementioned protocols. In short, the Court declared the appeal as inadmissible and therefore  
the protocols against which the association had appealed continue to be within the law.

Accreditation of the language knowledge of teaching staff in the Catalan  
university system

Supreme Court Ruling of 13 June 2014.

This Supreme Court Ruling, of 13 May 2014, confirmed the Ruling of the Supreme Court of Justice of  
Catalonia of 9 May 2012 in favour of the Catalan Government against the appeal lodged by the Convivencia Cívica Catalana association, in the first instance, against Decree 128/2010, of 14 September  
2010, on the accreditation of the language knowledge of teaching staff in the Catalan university system.

The Supreme Court, in view of the case law in the ruling of the Supreme Court of Justice of Catalonia, declared the appeal inadmissible due to the fact that the claimant association, to which the  
court costs were charged, is not legitimately entitled to appeal against Decree 128/2010.

 

123   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Knowledge of Catalan as a requirement for civil servants in the local  
Administration with State qualifications

Supreme Court Ruling of 16 and 22 July 2014

Both rulings confirm rulings by the Supreme Court of Justice of Catalonia, which had dismissed the  
appeals lodged by the General Council of Official Associations of Secretaries, Auditors and Treasurers  
in the Local Administration against the requirement for knowledge of the Catalan language to access  
certain auditor/treasurer and secretary/auditor positions. The Supreme Court rulings, therefore,  
corroborated the legality and constitutionality of the accreditation of knowledge of Catalan in these  
particular circumstances.

Sanction of a judge due to contempt towards the Catalan Government  
and the Catalan language

Supreme Court Ruling of 29 July 2014

The Ruling dismissed the appeal lodged by Judge Aníbal Saturnino against the Resolution of the  
Plenary of the General Council of the Judiciary of 12 November 2013, which imposed the sanction  
of suspension of functions for six months due to very serious infraction of contempt towards an  
institution (Generalitat of Catalonia). Indeed, the Ruling deemed it as proven that in several judicial  
rulings the Judge in question used expressions that contained a high level of contempt towards the  
administrative activities of the Catalan Government and, more specifically, expressions of contempt  
towards the use of Catalan in administrative documents. The Ruling itself quoted examples of the  
expressions used by the now-penalized Judge when referring to the administrative activities of the  
Catalan Government in relation to the language, such as: «linguistic imposition, institutional disloyalty, ideological hatred and linguistic fanaticism, perversity, and accusations of marginalizing,  
hindering or eliminating Spanish.»

Integrated treatment of language (TIL) in the Balearic Islands

Rulings of the Supreme Court of Justice of the Balearic Islands on 22 September 2014

These three rulings were issued in response to appeals lodged against Decree 15/2013, of the Government Council of the Balearic Islands, regulating the integrated treatment of languages in non-university educational centres in the Balearic Islands, by the following three trade union organizations: the  
Confederació Sindical de Comissions Obreres de les Illes Balears (Trade Union Confederation of the  
Balearic Islands - CCOO), the Sindicat de Treballadores i Treballadors de l’Ensenyament, Intersindical de les Illes Balears (Union of Workers in Education of the Balearic Islands -STEI-I) and Federació  
Estatal de Treballadors de l’Ensenyament (State Federation of Education Workers - FETE), part of the  
Confederació Sindical de la Unió General de Treballadors (General Workers Union – UGT).

 

124   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

The Court considered that, in drawing up the challenged Decree, the Government of the Balearic  
Islands infringed the Statute of Autonomy of the Balearic Islands, which establishes the obligation to  
consult the University of the Balearic Islands in drawing up provisions that affect the normalization  
of the knowledge and use of the Catalan language. The Court also emphasized that the modification  
of the educational system imposed by the TIL entails an impediment to the Catalan language and  
its process of normalization, as its presence in educational centres would be significantly reduced.  
Furthermore, the Court deemed that the report analysing the impact of this legislation presented by  
the Government did not justify the approval of the Decree.

It is worth remembering that the TIL system establishes teaching in Catalan, Spanish and English in equal measure, which would mean that Catalan would no longer be the vehicular language  
of education.

Cessation of TV3 broadcasting in the Valencian Community

Supreme Court Ruling of 11 November 2014

The third section of the Contentious-Administrative Chamber of the Supreme Court overruled the  
cessation of TV3 broadcasting in the Valencian Community as well as the fine of 100,000 euros imposed on the Ramon Muntaner Foundation, which facilitated the transmission signal, deeming that  
the Valencian Regional Government does not have the authority to sanction the transmission of these  
broadcasts because this power belongs to the State Administration. The Ruling upheld two appeals  
lodged by the Foundation against the ruling issued by the Valencian Supreme Court of Justice which  
confirmed the provisional shutdown of TV3 transmitters in the Valencian region and the fine imposed  
by the Council.

I 
n 2014, a number of unconstitutionality appeals lodged against Catalan laws governing major  
linguistic prerogatives continue to have actions pending in court.

Occitan, Aranese in Aran, Act 
Act 35/2010, of 1 October 2010, on Occitan, Aranese in Aran, challenged before the Constitutional  
Court in 2011, is still awaiting a ruling. 
One of the remarkable facts with regard to language in the Statute of Autonomy of 2006 is the  
reference to Occitan, in the Aranese variant, with the declaration of its official status across the whole  
of Catalonia. The Statute refers for future legislation the scope and content of this official status,  
aspects which were established with the approval of Act 35/2010.

An interlocutory ruling of the Constitutional Court on 14 December 2011 agreed to uphold the  
suspension of Articles 2.3, 5.4, 7 and 6.5 with regard to the preferential use of Occitan, Aranese in Aran.

Pending litigation –  
unconstitutionality  
appeals

 

125   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Education Act 
The Education Act 12/2009, of 10 July 2009, enacts the linguistic system deriving from the Statute  
which, in Article 143.1, establishes that the Catalan Government enjoys exclusive competences over  
Catalonia’s own language.

Also in 2009, an appeal was made to the Constitutional Court against the Act, on the grounds of  
unconstitutionality by a group of more than 50 MPs from the Popular Party in the Spanish Parliament’s  
Chamber of Deputies. The articles challenged that govern the linguistic system in education were  
essentially those that determine the curriculum for the teaching of languages (Art. 9.2), the personalized reception of newly-arrived students in Catalan (Art. 10.2), the linguistic system of schools in  
Aran (Art. 17), teacher training (Art. 109) and knowledge of Catalan in order to obtain a civil service  
teaching post (Art. 119). A ruling on the abovementioned appeal had not yet been issued in 2014.

Catalan Consumer Code Act  
Act 22/2010, of 20 July 2010, on the Consumer Code of Catalonia, devotes Articles 121.2 and 128.1 to  
the language rights of consumers; Article 211.5 to the language requirements for consumer relations;  
and Article 331.6 to infringements of language rights. The new legal text increases the capacity of the  
Generalitat's Administration to fulfil its supervisory role and hence its power to impose sanctions  
and discipline on the sector. Two unconstitutionality appeals were lodged against this Act for which  
no ruling had yet been issued in 2014:

— Unconstitutionality appeal no. 7611-2010, lodged by the Partit Popular (Popular Party) before  
the Constitutional Court and admitted for processing on 3 November 2010. The articles challenged refer to the language in which consumers are addressed verbally and in writing and  
the language of documentation and information required for the appropriate consumption  
and use of goods and services intended for consumers.

— Unconstitutionality appeal no. 7418-2010, lodged by the Ombudsman against Article 128.1 of  
the Act, regarding the language rights of consumers. This appeal was admitted for processing  
on 3 November 2010.

The Film Act  
The Film Act 20/2010, of 7 July 2010, establishes the regulatory framework governing the film and  
audiovisual industry with regard to the production, distribution, marketing and exhibition of cinematic and audiovisual works; to aspects concerning the promotion, preservation and dissemination  
of cinematographic heritage, and to supporting the offering of films in Catalan, whether original,  
dubbed or subtitled.

 

126   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

In order to effectively guarantee the Catalan public’s right to language choice in this area, the  
Act establishes, in general, that whenever a feature film is premiered in Catalonia, whether dubbed or  
subtitled, the distributors shall be obliged to release 50% of all copies in a Catalan language version  
and must also respect this language balance in all the publicity for these films.

In 2010, an unconstitutionality appeal, no. 7454-2010, was lodged against the Act by the Popular Party and admitted for processing by the Constitutional Court on 3 November 2010. The articles  
contested were those referring to the obligation upon film distributors and exhibitors to distribute  
and screen, respectively, 50% of the analogue copies of films in a Catalan language version, and also  
to the obligation to provide Catalan language access to digital copies. Finally, it also contested the  
articles regulating the disciplinary action.

No ruling has yet been handed down in 2014 on this appeal. It is also worth remembering the  
ruling issued in 2012 by the European Commission on the discriminatory nature of Article 18 of the  
Act. In 2014 no ruling had yet been handed down so for the time being there are no changes to the  
Catalan law.

Act on the reception of immigrants and those returning to Catalonia 
Act 10/2010, of 7 May 2010, reflects the idea that reception is not just a process of full integration but  
the initial stage of a process that lasts several years. In this respect, the aim is not to list all the rights  
in every field (education, health, language teaching and learning, employment, etc.) but rather to  
regulate the inherent sectoral right in this instance: the right to receive a reception service, including language teaching. Subsections 2, 4 and 5 of Article 9, which contain language provisions, were  
challenged in 2010 by the Ombudsman before the Constitutional Court. These subsections of article  
9 essentially refer to Catalan as the common and vehicular language of reception, in accordance with  
its status as an official native language.

No ruling has yet been handed down in 2014 on this appeal.

 

127   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Rights, duties and principles governing public policy in the field of language  
with regard to public authorities and associated national agencies
 
With regard to constitutional and jurisdictional bodies at State level, Article 33.5 of the Statute of  
Autonomy of Catalonia introduces the generic right to the use of Catalan before constitutional and  
jurisdictional bodies with competences throughout the State. However, the effective enforcement  
of this principle depends on the introduction of the necessary changes to State regulations, such as  
the Regulations of the Congress, the Organic Law of the Constitutional Court, procedural laws, etc.  
There were no new legislative developments in this respect in 2014.

International profile. Limited official use of languages 
Following a process of negotiation among the twenty-five member states, on 13 June 2005 the Council  
of Ministers of the European Union agreed a set of conclusions covering the possibility of limited  
official use, at EU institutions and bodies, of languages which do not have the status of official and/ 
or working languages of European institutions. In accordance with the conclusions of the European  
Council, the Spanish government and any other member states may request the establishment of  
administrative agreements with the different institutions and bodies of the EU.

In 2014 there were still difficulties in fulfilling the administrative agreements signed to date  
with the various bodies (the Council, the European Commission, the Committee of the Regions,  
etc.) which should allow, in general, for the publication in Catalan of all Acts passed by the European  
Parliament and the Council, verbal presentations at Council meetings and, where applicable, those  
of other institutions or bodies of the EU and, finally, written relations between Spanish citizens who  
wish to exercise this right and the bodies and institutions of the EU.

Regulations on local use at public authorities and associated agencies 
Article 9.3 of Language Policy Act 1/1998, of 7 January 1998, establishes that local authorities and  
universities must regulate the use of Catalan within the sphere of their competences through the  
approval of regulations which comply with the instructions and principles of this Act. In this respect,  
there are some local bodies that have still not drawn up their regulations.

In 2014, the Regulation for the Use of the Catalan Language was definitively approved by Lleida  
City Council, which essentially adapts the standard model of the Regulation for Use provided by the  
Consortium for Language Normalisation.

Pending  
regulations

State

Europe

Catalonia

 

128   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Region of Valencia

Education

This year saw the publication of Decree 108/2014, of 4 July 2014, establishing the curriculum and  
general regulations for Primary School Education in the Valencian Community. The Decree, issued to  
implement the LOMQE, envisages an increase in the amount of teaching hours in Spanish in all current educational syllabuses, which affects students studying multilingual syllabuses in the Valencian  
language and also students studying the syllabus in Spanish. Furthermore, the Decree does not take  
into account the observations made by the Valencian Academy of Language in proceedings prior to  
its approval with regard to the marginalization of the Valencian language in the educational system.

Competences over language policy

Council Decree 140/2014 was published on 5 September 2014 approving the organic and functional  
ruling of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport. This provision regulates the body responsible  
for language policy in the Valencian regional government, which is the General Directorate for Innovation, Planning and Language Policy.

Place names

In 2014, four municipalities officially adopted their name in Valencian: Potries, Xert, Vistabella del  
Maestrat and Atzúbia.

Balearic Islands

Consumer affairs

Law 7/2014, of 23 July 2014, on the protection of consumers and users in the Balearic Islands, can  
be regarded as regressive from the perspective of its regulation of language rights, in view of the  
previous legal text, as it eliminates the measures to promote the Catalan language and the provision  
that information which affects people’s health and safety may only appear in Catalan if it is easily  
understandable, which appeared in Law 1/1998, now overturned.

Place names

The Executive Council of the Island Council of Ibiza adopted the agreement of 1 September 2014 to  
change the name of the town of Santa Eulalia del Rio (sic) to Santa Eulària des Riu. It is worth noting  
that the forms of all the place names of municipalities in the Balearic Islands had already been established officially by the Decree 36/1988, of 14 April 1988, of the Balearic Island Government. In the case  
of Santa Eulària, it envisaged both forms of the name: Santa Eulària des Riu and Santa Eulària del Riu.

Other Catalanspeaking  
regions:  
regulatory  
changes

 

129   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Catalan certificates

Decree 1/2014, of 10 January 2014, on the evaluation and certification of knowledge of the Catalan  
language, updates and slightly modifies the regulation that already governed this area. In organic  
terms, the changes are that the Institute of Balearic Studies is now responsible for certifying examinations, which was previously the remit of the General Directorate for Culture and Youth, and the  
composition of the Technical Committee for the Evaluation of Catalan Knowledge has changed.

In addition, the Order of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Universities of 28 July 2014 was  
also published, which regulates the approval of Catalan language studies in compulsory secondary  
and Baccalaureate education with the certificates of Catalan language knowledge from the Ministry  
of Education, Culture and Universities, and the exemption of the evaluation of Catalan language and  
literature in compulsory non-university education along with the procedures for obtaining them. The  
Order gives the authority for approvals to the president of the Institute of Balearic Studies under the  
same criteria as the previous Order of 2011 on the approval of ESO and Baccalaureate qualifications  
obtained after the 2013-2014 academic year.

Qualifications

The Order of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Universities of 14 April 2014 sets forth the qualifications necessary to give Catalan language lessons in Catalan, specifically for the Balearic Islands,  
in non-university compulsory education, and establishes a Linguistic and Cultural Education Plan  
(FOLC).

The foreword explains, as grounds for the replacement of the previous regulation, that back in  
1996 the transfer of educational competences to the Government of the Balearic Islands was completed, that the basic State regulation has been modified and, finally, that the Institute of Balearic  
Studies (IEB) has taken on more competences in the Recycling and Linguistic and Cultural Education  
Plan, so that the teaching and evaluation of the Catalan language is now concentrated in a single  
body – the IEB itself.

Competences over language policy

These are attributed in Decree 15/2014, of 12 December 2014, of the President of the Balearic Islands,  
modifying Decree 6/2013, of 2 May 2013, of the President of the Balearic Islands, which establishes  
the competences and basic organic structure of the departments of the Administration of the Autonomous Community of the Balearic Islands. The Decree restructures the Ministry of Education, Culture  
and Universities, passing the competences for language policy over to the General Directorate for  
Education and Culture. More specifically, the competences in question correspond from this point  
onwards to the Institute of Balearic Studies.

 

130   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Trilingual education

This year, the continuation of the introduction to Balearic Island schools of the so-called trilingual  
education system (TIL), to which a large part of the Islands’ educational community was opposed  
to, was hindered for various reasons. 
Firstly, the Order of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Universities, of 9 May 2014, outlining  
certain aspects of the integrated treatment of languages in non-university education centres in the  
Balearic Islands, was challenged by the Assembly of Teachers. The Order envisaged the progressive  
implementation, over four academic years, starting from 2014/2015, of trilingual teaching in kindergarten, primary and compulsory secondary education. As a result of this challenge, the Higher Court  
of Justice of the Balearic Islands suspended the Order as a precautionary measure for the 2014-2015  
academic year. This suspension was reaffirmed by the same Court by its dismissal of the appeal lodged  
by the Balearic Island Government.

Secondly, the Resolution of the Director-General of Planning, Innovation and Vocational Training, of 28 July 2014, establishing the measures to be used by public schools in the Balearic Islands  
which do not have an approved integrated treatment of languages project (TIL), was derogated by  
another Resolution from the Director-General of Education, Teaching Staff, Universities and Research  
of 17 October 2014. The suspended Resolution established that those public education centres in the  
Balearic Islands that did not have an approved «integrated treatment of languages project» in place  
were required to implement, as a temporary measure, the project model approved by the Ministry;  
in other words, the project to implement the TIL.

This whole conflict is enshrined in the passing last year of Decree 15/2013, of 19 April 2013,  
regulating the integrated treatment of languages (known as TIL) in non-university education centres  
in the Balearic Islands, which was overruled this year by the Higher Court of Justice of the Balearic  
Islands by means of three rulings on 22 September, detailed in the section on jurisdictional action.

Aragon

Aragonese cultural heritage / Law 14/2014, of 30 December 2014, on the fiscal and administrative  
measures of the Autonomous Community of Aragon

Article 32 of the abovementioned Law modifies Law 3/1999, of 10 March 1999, on Aragonese cultural  
heritage in the sense of changing the terms «Catalan» and «Aragonese» for «Aragonese languages with  
their linguistic forms which are mainly used in the northern and eastern areas of the Autonomous  
Community.» In other words, it reiterates the same designations as Law 3/2013, of 9 May 2013, on the  
use, protection and promotion of the languages and linguistic forms inherent to Aragon.

 

131   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Shown below is a translation of Article 4 of the Law of Aragonese Cultural Heritage in its original  
form, followed by how it looks now:

Article 4. Minority languages.

Aragonese and Catalan, the minority languages of Aragon, in the sphere of which there are various linguistic forms, represent an intrinsic cultural asset and are especially protected by the  
Administration.

Article 4. Languages and linguistic forms of Aragon:

1. As well as Spanish, Aragon also has its own original historic Aragonese language with its  
own linguistic forms which are mainly used in the northern and eastern areas of the Autonomous Community.

2. The linguistic heritage of Aragonese includes all the tangible and intangible assets of linguistic relevance related to the history and culture of the languages and linguistic forms of  
Aragon.

Order of 11 November 2014 of the Ministry of Education, Universities, Culture and Sport,  
regulating the recognition of accreditation of language skills in accordance with the Common  
European Framework of Reference for Languages in the Autonomous Community of Aragon

This Order replaces the one published last year on 22 August 2013. As in the previous Order, this year’s  
Order includes Catalan among the languages for which equivalences in qualifications and certificates  
have been established.

 

cat • Voluntariat per la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats • Projecció exterior • Foment de l’ús • Immersió lingüística • Plans educatius d’entorn • Optimot • Foment de l’ús • Cursos • Ús del català • Cursos • parla.cat • Voluntariat per  
la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats • Projecció exterior • Foment de l’ús Immersió lingüística • Plans educatius  
d’entorn Optimot • Foment de l’ús • Cursos • Ús del català • parla.cat • Voluntariat per la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques  
Entitats • Projecció exterior • Foment de l’ús • Immersió lingüística • Optimot Plans educatius d’entorn • Foment de l’ús  
• Cursos • cata là • Cursos • parla.cat Voluntariat per la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats • Foment de l’ús • Plans  
educatius torn • Optimot • Foment de l’ús • Cursos • Ús del català • Cursos • parla.cat • Voluntariat per la llengua Polítiques  
lingüístiques • Entitats • Projecció exterior • Foment de l’ús • Immersió lingüística • Plans educatius d’entorn • Optimot  
Foment de l’ús • Cursos • Ús del català • parla.cat • Voluntariat per la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats •
Foment  
de l’ús • Immersió lingüística • Plans educatius d’entorn • Optimot • Foment de l’ús • Cursos • cat • Voluntariat per la llengua  
• Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats • Projecció exterior • Foment de l’ús • Immersió lingüística • Plans educatius d’entorn •  
Optimot • Foment de l’ús • Cursos • Ús del català • Cursos • parla.cat • Voluntariat per la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques  
• Entitats • Projecció exterior • Foment de l’ús Immersió lingüística • Plans educatius d’entorn Optimot • Foment de l’ús •  
Cursos • Ús del català • parla.cat • Voluntariat per la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques Entitats • Projecció exterior • Foment  
de l’ús • Immersió lingüística • Optimot Plans educatius d’entorn • Foment de l’ús • Cursos • cata là • Cursos • parla.cat  
Voluntariat per la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats • Foment de l’ús • Plans educatius torn • Optimot • Foment  
de l’ús • Cursos • Ús del català • Cursos • parla.cat • Voluntariat per la llengua Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats • Projecció  
exterior • Foment de l’ús • Immersió lingüística • Plans educatius d’entorn • Optimot Foment de l’ús • Cursos • Ús del català • parla.cat • Voluntariat per la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats •
Foment de l’ús • Immersió lingüística • Plans  
educatius d’entorn • Optimot • Foment de l’ús • Cursos •
cat • Voluntariat per la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats  
• Projecció exterior • Foment de l’ús • Immersió lingüística • Plans educatius d’entorn • Optimot • Foment de l’ús • Cursos  
• Ús del català • Cursos • parla.cat • Voluntariat per la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats • Projecció exterior • Foment de l’ús Immersió lingüística • Plans educatius d’entorn Optimot • Foment de l’ús • Cursos • Ús del català • parla.cat  
• Voluntariat per la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques Entitats • Projecció exterior • Foment de l’ús • Immersió lingüística •  
Optimot Plans educatius d’entorn • Foment de l’ús • Cursos • cata là • Cursos • parla.cat Voluntariat per la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats • Foment de l’ús • Plans educatius torn • Optimot • Foment de l’ús • Cursos • Ús del català •  
Cursos • parla.cat • Voluntariat per la llengua Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats • Projecció exterior • Foment de l’ús • Immersió lingüística • Plans educatius d’entorn • Optimot Foment de l’ús • Cursos • Ús del català • parla.cat • Voluntariat per  
la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats • Foment de l’ús • Immersió lingüística • Plans educatius d’entorn • Optimot •  
Foment de l’ús • Cursos • cat • Voluntariat per la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats • Projecció exterior • Foment de  
l’ús • Immersió lingüística • Plans educatius d’entorn • Optimot • Foment de l’ús • Cursos • Ús del català • Cursos • parla. 
cat • Voluntariat per la llengua • Polítiques lingüístiques • Entitats • Projecció exterior • Foment de l’ús Immersió lingüística • Plans educatius d’entorn Optimot • Foment de l’ús • Cursos • Ús del català • parla.cat • Voluntariat per la llengua

Annexes

Language Policy  
Report

2014

 

133   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

T 
his chapter includes the expenditure earmarked by the Government of the Generalitat during  
2014 for language policy actions in every sphere. 
The budget that the Catalan Government allocated for 2014 to the General Directorate for Language Policy, not including the expenses under Chapter 1 (for staffing), was 23,614,520.03 euros. The  
difference between the budget that was approved and the one that was finally implemented is due  
to the cost-cutting measures applied by the Government.

The following table shows the evolution over the last ten years of the approved and implemented budget of the General Directorate for Language Policy, not including the first chapter or  
additional contributions.

Budget

annexes

Evolution of  
the budget of the  
General Directorate  
for Language Policy

year budget increase budget

 approved from previous implemented

  year

2004 17,515,149 19.48 % 17,941,518

2005 21,715,063 23.96 % 22,979,929

2006 27,030,240 24.47 % 31,402,520

2007 27,841,147 2.99 % 29,925,870

2008 28,397,970 2.00 % 30,995,183

2009 27,731,698 -2.34 % 28,808,672

2010 30,711,446 10.74 % 31,760,162

2011 28,262,310 -7.97 % 27,943,889

2012 28,398,064 0.48 % 23,033,630

2013 27,648,064 -2.64 % 23,172,618

2014 23,614,520 -14.59 % 22,911,153

 

134   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

annexes Meanwhile, the budgets of the Generalitat ministries allocated to initiatives to promote the use  
of Catalan in their respective spheres amounted to 30,643,586.16 euros. 
The total amount earmarked by the Generalitat for language policy actions in 2014 came to  
87,317,943.82 euros.

The Catalan government’s budget for 2014 for increasing the social use of the Catalan language  
is itemized in the table to the right by Ministries.

Ministry of Culture. General Directorate for Language Policy  
The budget of the General Directorate for Language Policy includes financing for the Consortium for  
Language Normalisation and the TERMCAT Consortium.

ministry budget

Culture  
(DGPL + other units) 54,258,106.19

Presidency 7,357,765.18

Economy and Knowledge 3,176,318.44

Governance and  
Institutional Relations 23,648.35

Health 60,407.77

Social Welfare and Family 1,843,977.02

Education 18,420,834.00

Business and Labour 325,758.88

Justice 1,369,828.89

TOTAL 87,317,943.82

Provision for the operating expenses of the Consortium for Language Normalisation  
(training, consultancy and promotional activities) 16,016,105.01

Provision for the operating expenses of the Consortium of the Terminology  
Centre TERMCAT 1,177,425.01

Provision for the Ramon Llull Institute to cover expenses relating  
to the Expolangues International Language and Culture Fair and to assist  
with operating expenses 206,562.06

Provision for covering the operating expenses of the Language Department  
of the Institut d’Estudis Catalans (Institute of Catalan Studies) 633,776.15

Provision for the Conselh Generau d’Aran to fulfil the collaboration agreement  
between the Council and the Catalan Government to implement Act 35/2010,  
of 1 October 2010, on Occitan, Aranese in Aran 60,000.00

 

135   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

annexes Subsidies and grants to promote the knowledge and use of the Catalan language

It is worth noting that as from 2013, all subsidies, whether from the public purse or from collaboration agreements, will be processed through the Office for the Support of Cultural Initiatives (OSIC).

2014 funding round for subsidies for initiatives intended to promote the use of the Catalan language in Catalonia. Non-profit organizations. 350,000.00

2014 funding round for subsidies for enterprise initiatives intended to promote the use of Catalan in Catalonia 200,000.00

2014 funding round for subsidies for initiatives intended to increase commercial premieres of feature films dubbed or subtitled in Catalan 1,524,571.07

2013-2015 agreement with the Language Platform – Esbarzer Collective to undertake activities aimed at extending the social use of the Catalan language  
in every sphere and in every Catalan-speaking region. Agreement funded by means of contributions from other departments. Annual budget for 2014: 620,000.00

MINISTRY OF PRESIDENCY 119,000.00

MINISTRY OF GOVERNANCE AND INSTITUTIONAL RELATIONS 114,000.00

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION 28,000.00

MINISTRY OF CULTURE 129,000.00

MINISTRY OF WELFARE AND FAMILY   93,000.00

MINISTRY OF BUSINESS AND LABOUR   119,000.00

MINISTRY OF JUSTICE 18,000.00

2014 collaboration agreement with the Coordinator of Film and Video Festivals of Catalonia to increase the presence of Catalan and to disseminate  
and promote subtitling in Catalan at film and video festivals in Catalonia 100,000.00

2014 collaboration agreement with DTS, Distribuïdora de Televisión Digital, SA, to subtitle in Catalan premieres of fiction series on Canal+  85,000.00

2014 collaboration agreement with the Balmes University Foundation to organize the V International Symposium on the Teaching of Catalan 12,000.00

2014 collaboration agreement with Raig d’Idees i Propostes Visuals, SL, to subtitle in Catalan the films shown by Texas Cinemas 24,000.00

Subsidy for the Occitan-Catalan Brotherhood Centre for the project of activities to foster the use of the Occitan Language in Catalonia 19,500.00

Subsidy for Enciclopèdia Catalana, SA, to finance the completion of the Classic Greek-Catalan Dictionary and begin proof-reading 12,000.00

Subsidy for the University of Barcelona to finance the exhibition «Opening Doors: the Catalan Language in the University of Barcelona» 8,000.00

Subsidy for Ómnium Catalunya Nord to disseminate and promote Catalan courses for adults in North Catalonia in 2014 4,000.00

Subsidy for the International Association for the Dissemination of Chess to fund the preparation of various materials for the «Chess for All» project in 2014 12,000.00

 

136   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

annexes Contributions from the General Directorate for Language Policy to projects managed  
by other departments in the Generalitat

Ministry of Culture 
The Ministry of Culture’s budget includes activities to promote the Institució de les Lletres Catalanes  
(Institute of Catalan Letters) and and subsidies awarded through the Catalan Institute for Cultural  
Enterprises (ICEC) to foster artistic and cultural activities. The ICEC budget to support cultural creation, promotion and dissemination includes subsidies for the audiovisual sectors, visual arts, music,  
the performance arts and publishing. It also includes subsidies for projects that promote the use of  
Catalan, irrespective of whether it is a requirement that the activity be conducted in Catalan or simply an evaluation criterion for granting the subsidy (27,626,792.32 euros).

In relation to the Institució de les Lletres Catalanes given the difficulty in separating the expenditure on support for language from that on support for literature, the figure includes all the  
grants awarded for literary output and the translation to Catalan of works in other languages, as well  
as the cost of the «Lletres en viu» (Living Letters) and «Lletres a les aules» (Letters in the Classroom)  
campaigns aimed at promoting and disseminating Catalan literature (342,980.00 euros).

Of the actions managed directly by the Ministry, it is worth mentioning the line of grants organized through the library acquisition system whose objective is to support editorial production in  
Catalan and Occitan by promoting reading and a greater presence of new publications in the public  
libraries of Catalonia (1,100,000.00 euros).

This also includes the amount that the Ramon Llull Institute earmarks for programmes to foster the Catalan language abroad, mainly in relation to teaching it in the universities that form part of  
the Network of Catalan Studies Abroad (1,573,813.79 euros).

Secretariat for Universities and Research for the funding round for INTERLINGUA grants.  
Assistance in maintaining and updating the self-study facilities for Catalan learning. 60,000.00

Secretariat for Universities and Research, for the activities of the Inter-University Catalan  
Language Training Commission 12,000.00

Ramon Muntaner Institute, for activities involved in the research and the promotion  
of the use of Catalan in Catalan-speaking regions  5,000.00

 

137   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Presidential Department 
The budget of the Presidential Department includes activities in its four main spheres of competence: the Secretariat of Communication, the Secretariat for Foreign Affairs, the General Secretariat  
for Sport and, jointly, the Secretariat of Government and the General Secretariat.

With regard to the budget of the Secretariat of Communication, this includes subsidies for projects and initiatives to support the media in Catalan and Aranese and the development and consolidation of the Catalan media space (6,435,453.60 euros).

With regard to the Secretariat of Foreign Affairs, it is worth noting its activities with Catalan  
communities abroad and its financial support for 147 Catalan language courses of different types  
and levels held in 51 social centres in 22 different countries (93,310.00 euros).

The budget of the General Secretariat of Sport amounts to 806,000.00 euros which correspond  
to the collaboration agreement between the Consell Català de l’Esport (Catalan Sport Council) and  
the UFEC (Union of Sports Federations of Catalonia) to promote language normalisation in Catalan  
sports organisations and the sporting pursuits of their members.

This also includes the activities of the Catalan Government’s Delegation in Madrid, the Casa  
de la Generalitat in Perpignan, the Government’s Representative in Alghero and the Catalan sign  
language interpreting service of the Citizens’ Advice Office in Girona.

Ministry of Economy and Knowledge  
This budget includes a provision for the Secretariat for Universities and Research of 1,422,848.59  
euros for the Ramon Llull Institute to maintain the network of Catalan lectureships and universities worldwide and the organisation of INTERLIGUA grants for Catalan universities for initiatives  
aimed at promoting and using languages in universities. Of the total amount (611,779.20 euros), the  
amount earmarked for projects and actions in the sphere of the Catalan Language was 288,737.00  
euros. Transfers to Catalan universities within the framework of target-related funding related to  
improvements in Catalan language skills amounted to a total of 1,225,440.00 euros. The Ministry’s  
budget also includes subsidies for grants for hearing-impaired students convened by UNIDISCAT  
2014, which amounted to 42,936.86 euros.

Ministry of Social Welfare and Family  
The Ministry of Social Welfare and Family finances the Catalan courses aimed at newcomers, literacy courses and courses held at immigrants’ associations (813,217.00
). 
It also includes the actions of the General Directorate of Youth and the General Directorate of  
Civic and Community Action, especially those activities geared specifically towards teaching and  
using Catalan (20,257.79 ).

It also includes the expenses related to actions associated with Catalan sign language  
(432,965.00
).

annexes

 

138   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Ministry of Education  
The budget for the Ministry of Education includes the amounts earmarked for reception classes  
for newcomers and the Catalan sign language interpreting service for students in non-compulsory  
education (481,259.10 euros).

Ministry of Justice 
In the Ministry of Justice’s budget intended to promote the use of Catalan it is worth mentioning remuneration for personnel assigned to promoting the Catalan language in court offices: support and  
linguistic advice to judicial bodies (1,243,820.10 euros) and other actions to introduce Catalan into  
the ordinary operations of the justice system and the organization of language training for people  
working in the legal profession. This provision also includes expenses deriving from the interpretation of Catalan sign language in Catalan courts (15,040.83 euros). The total amount implemented  
was 1,369,868.89 euros.

Ministry of Enterprise and Employment  
The budget of the Ministry of Business and Labour includes the expenses associated with the agreement signed between the Catalan Employment Service (SOC) and the Consortium for Language  
Normalisation to teach Catalan to unemployed people in 2013 and 2014. The budget for 2014 was  
250,410.40 euros.

Ministry of Governance and Institutional Relations 
The budget of the Ministry of Governance and Institutional Relations includes the expenses related to the translation into Occitan, Aranese in Aran, of the Journal of Institutional Relations. It also  
includes the expenses relating to specific training in the Catalan language. The total budget of this  
Ministry was 23,648.35 euros.

Ministry of Health 
The budget for the Ministry of Health includes the subsidy for the Catalan Federation of the Deaf  
for interpreting services in their dealings with the health service, the cost of Catalan courses for  
healthcare professionals and collaboration agreements signed with TERMCAT. The total budget of  
this Ministry was 60,407.77 euros.

annexes

 

139   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Institutional structure

annexes

Institutional  
structure
T

he ministries of the Generalitat and the organisations and companies that report to them  
through their various units are responsible for the sector-wide implementation of the Government’s language policy and for ensuring the organisation and involvement of the social and occupational sectors in their respective spheres of competence. The General Directorate for Language  
Policy of the Ministry of Culture steers and coordinates the language policy of the Generalitat.

General Directorate for Language Policy 
The General Directorate for Language Policy is the body responsible for the analysis, management,  
planning, coordination and implementation of the language policy of the Generalitat, being ascribed the following functions:

a) Analyse, plan, direct, coordinate and implement the language policy of the Catalan Government in accordance with current law.

b) Oversee the implementation of the language policy established by the Government and coordinate the actions and measures of the different departments.

c) Establish the criteria for institutional language use with regard to the official languages in  
Catalonia.

d) Draw up the legislative and regulatory proposals associated with language policy and fostering the Catalan language, and report on the general regulatory projects associated with them  
and promoted by the departments of the Catalan Government’s Administration.

e) Promote the teaching of Catalan to the adult population and convene and organize examinations to obtain Catalan knowledge certificates and examinations for professional qualifications for sworn translators and interpreters from other languages to Catalan and vice-versa,  
along with the issuance of the corresponding certificates or qualifications.

f) Develop policies intended to foster the use of the Catalan language in every sphere of society  
and the availability of products and services in Catalan.

g) Promote, by means of official statistics and surveys, the production of Catalonia’s sociolinguistic map and the analysis of linguistic variables in social studies in other spheres.

h) Promote and coordinate initiatives related to language policy and the promotion of the Catalan language undertaken by local bodies in Catalonia, where applicable, through the Consortium for Language Normalisation.

 

140   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

annexes

i) Promote dialogue, cooperation and coordination with other competent institutions in the field  
of language policy, especially within the regional context of the Catalan language community.

j) Disseminate the language policies implemented in Catalonia on the international stage as a  
successful benchmark of the protection and development of non-hegemonic languages and the  
management of linguistic diversity.

k) Promote social dialogue in the field of language policy, collaborating where applicable with  
the Social Council of the Catalan Language, and achieve a consensus in favour of extending the  
use of Catalan in every sphere of Catalan society.

l) Support the work of the Technical Language Policy Commission and coordinate the Technical Language Policy Network to guarantee cross-cutting and interdepartmental action in the  
Government’s language policy.

m) Promote and coordinate, through the TERMCAT Terminology Centre, terminology-related  
activities associated with the Catalan language, and oversee the dissemination and use of the  
terminology generated by this Centre.

n) Collaborate with the Institut d'Estudis Catalans (Institute of Catalan Studies) in facilitating  
and promoting the implementation of language regulations.

o) Cooperate with the Ramon Llull Institute in its task of promoting and disseminating the  
Catalan language beyond its linguistic domain.

p) Promote the use, dissemination and knowledge of the Occitan language, known as Aranese  
in Aran, in accordance with the provisions of Article 21 and the Second Additional Provision  
of Act 35/2010, of 1 October 2010, on Occitan, Aranese in Aran, and promote foreign relations  
with regions in the Occitan linguistic domain in the field of language and the cultural output  
expressed in that language, in collaboration with the General Council of Aran.

q) Direct, plan and implement interdepartmental coordination and enact language policy in  
connection with the dissemination and promotion of Catalan sign language in order to guarantee social participation in its design through the Social Council of Catalan Sign Language,  
and promote its normalisation through the Institut d'Estudis Catalans; notwithstanding, with  
regard to the use of the language as a platform for communication, any accessibility regulations  
established by the competent ministry.

 

141   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

annexes Technical Language Policy Commission

On 21 July 2011, the Official Gazette of the Catalan Government published Decree 371/2011, of 19  
July 2011, on the cross-cutting organization of language policy. 
In accordance with this Decree, the Technical Language Policy Commission is the collegiate  
body responsible for guaranteeing, through the Technical Language Policy Network, the uniform  
application by all departments of the Generalitat’s Administration of language regulations and any  
agreements adopted by the Government in this field, and also for agreeing on cooperation mechanisms for the implementation of interdepartmental language policies. The Commission may make  
proposals to the Government with regard to any language policy measures it may deem appropriate.

Technical Language Policy Network 
La Technical Language Policy Network is intended to provide technical support to the General Directorate for Language Policy and the Technical Language Policy Commission in each of the Ministries in the Generalitat’s Administration. The Technical Network is part of the General Directorate  
for Language Policy.

The network comprises personnel from the Generalitat's  Administration assigned to different  
departments, autonomous agencies and others that report to the Catalan Government’s Administration, in the numbers required to fulfil its functions, with a minimum of two people per Ministry.

Toponymy Commission of Catalonia 
The Toponymy Commission of Catalonia was formally established by Decree 59/2011, of 23 January 2011, as the advisory, consultative and proposal body for establishing official place names in  
Catalonia.

It acts as a coordination body between organizations and institutions with competences in  
toponymy, such as the Institut d'Estudis Catalans, the Conselh Generau d’Aran, the Generalitat's  
Administration and its independent bodies that deal with place names. It puts forward criteria and  
writing guidelines for the use of place names on signage, maps, publications and audiovisual media  
in accordance with the linguistic regulations of the Institut d'Estudis Catalans and the Conselh Generau d’Aran. The proposals of the Toponymy Commission for determining and establishing place  
names may relate to any of the following areas: urban place names, population centres, administrative divisions, all other place names in Catalonia and the Catalan form of place names in other  
languages.

 

142   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

Consortium for Language Normalisation 
The mission of the Consortium for Language Normalisation (CPNL) is to foster the knowledge and  
use of the Catalan language in every sphere. With this objective, it organises Catalan courses for  
adults and offers a range of services and resources for companies, organisations, local agencies and  
individuals to facilitate the use of Catalan.

The CPNL is a public organisation with its own legal status; it was created in 1989 by the Generalitat and nineteen town councils. It currently comprises the Generalitat, 95 local councils, 37  
county councils and the Provincial Council of Girona. The Provincial Councils of Lleida and Tarragona collaborate with the CPNL through subsidies for Catalan services in their respective regions or  
through collaboration agreements for specific language reception and other programmes.

The CPNL provides a decentralised service through a regional network of twenty-two language  
normalisation centres. These centres operate independently and are governed by their own boards  
which are chaired by an individual representing the local corporations in the Consortium. The centres may cover a single municipality, more than one, a whole county or various counties, and are  
structured as county Catalan services, local Catalan services and Catalan language offices. In total,  
there are 146 public response centres across the region.

TERMCAT  
TERMCAT is a consortium comprising the Generalitat, the Institut d'Estudis Catalans and the Consortium for Language Normalisation. 
The TERMCAT Terminology Centre is responsible for coordinating terminology-related activities concerning the Catalan language, for compiling and promoting terminology resources and  
guaranteeing their availability, and for collaborating in the promotion and development of language  
engineering products with a particular focus on terminology, with the aim of helping to disseminate  
and implement scientific and technical terminology in the various specialist language fields.

annexes

 

143   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

annexes Ramon Llull Institute                                                                                                                  

The Ramon Llull Institute is a public body that was created for the purpose of promoting Catalan  
language and literature studies abroad in the fields of academia, literary translation and thought expressed in Catalan, and to promote Catalan cultural output in other fields such as the theatre, film,  
circus, dance, music, the visual arts, design and architecture.

The Ramon Llull Institute is part of the Ramon Llull Foundation along with the Catalan Government, the Government of Andorra, Barcelona City Council, Alghero City Council, the General  
Council of the Eastern Pyrenees, the Network of Valencian Cities and the town councils in the Ramon Llull Network of Balearic Municipalities and Organizations. It is based in Andorra.

To achieve its ends, it performs the following functions:

a) Promoting the teaching of Catalan and the culture through which it is expressed in universities and other higher education centres, as well as encouraging its study and research.

b) Promoting the teaching of Catalan outside the university sphere, especially in areas outside  
the Catalan-speaking domain where the existence of groups of people from the autonomous  
regions in the consortium or their particular historical, cultural or commercial relations make  
this desirable.

c) Promoting the dissemination abroad of knowledge of literature expressed in the Catalan  
language by promoting and supporting translations into other languages and carrying out the  
relevant promotional actions.

d) Promoting the dissemination of thinking, essays and research abroad through the encouragement of and support for translations to other languages, the organization of gatherings,  
seminars and exchanges, and other promotional actions abroad in the academic, intellectual  
and scientific spheres.

e) Promoting and supporting Catalan societies abroad and their initiatives, projects and actions.

f) Promoting the overseas profile of the cultural output of the autonomous regions belonging  
to the Consortium in every mode, genre and expression by means of promotional strategies  
and actions abroad. This includes supporting the internationalization of outstanding artistic  
expression, the foreign travel of artists and works, and the dissemination of the artistic heritage  
inherent to the autonomous communities in the Consortium.

g) Promoting relations, projects and joint initiatives with institutions and organizations that  
showcase culture within and beyond the linguistic domain.

 

144   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

annexes Social Council for Language                                                                                           

The Social Council for the Catalan Language, founded in 1991, is the advisory, consultative and social participation body for language policy, developed and promoted by the Catalan Government. In  
2000 the constitutional decree creating this body was modified to adapt to the regulatory framework  
established by Act 1/1998, and in 2005 it was once again amended by Decree 116/2005, of 14 June  
2005, of the Social Council for the Catalan Language, governing the functions, composition, bodies  
and functionalities currently in place.

In accordance with Decree 116/2005, the Social Council for the Catalan Language is tasked  
with the following functions:

a) To evaluate the objectives and outcomes of the Catalan Government’s language policy, especially the annual report envisaged by Article 39.3 of the Language Policy Act. To this end, each  
year the Council draws up a report on the actions undertaken or instigated by the Government  
of the Generalitat the previous year.

b) To study and analyse, at the behest of the Government, matters concerned with the promotion of the Catalan language in every sphere of society.

c) To issue opinions on projects for general language planning instruments to be approved by  
the Government.

d) To propose to the Government the preparation of studies and rulings and the adoption of the  
appropriate measures in line with the general aims of the Language Policy Act.

e) Any other function that may be attributed to it by laws or regulations.

 

annexes Social Council on Catalan Sign Language

The Social Council on Catalan Sign Language was created in October 2012 in accordance with Act  
17/2010, of 3 June 2010, on Catalan Sign Language. It was constituted in 2013. It is the advisory, consultative and social participation body for the language policy developed and promoted by the Government of the Generalitat with regard to sign language. It has the following functions:

a) To study and analyse, at the behest of the Government, matters relating to the promoting and  
dissemination of Catalan sign language, bearing in mind the principle of non-sexist use of sign  
language.

b) To advise the Government on the appropriate measures to fulfil the objectives set forth in Act  
17/2010, of 3 June 2010, on Catalan Sign Language.

c) To evaluate the objectives and outcomes of actions relating to Catalan sign language implemented by the Catalan Government’s Administration.

The Council is chaired by the Minister of Culture and comprises 14 members, of whom seven  
represent the Catalan Government and seven represent sector organizations, professionals and users  
of Catalan sign language.

Institut d'Estudis Catalans (IEC) 
The IEC is an academic, scientific and cultural institution whose purpose is to conduct high-level  
scientific research, essentially covering all elements of Catalan culture. The Institute is based in Barcelona and has offices throughout its geographical area of operation (Perpignan, Castelló de la Plana,  
Alicante, Lleida, Palma and Valencia).

Royal Decree 3118/1976, of 26 November 1976, granted the Institute of Catalan Studies official  
recognition as an academic, scientific and cultural institution with an operational scope extending to  
all regions of Catalan language and culture. By means of the Ruling of 17 May 2001, the Official Gazette of the Generalitat published the general amendment of the Statutes of the Institute of Catalan  
Studies. Meanwhile, in accordance with Act 17/2010, of 3 June 2010, on Catalan Sign Language, the  
IEC is also the academic institution responsible for determining the linguistic standards for Catalan  
sign language.

To perform its functions, the IEC is divided into sections, and the Philology Section fulfils the  
function of a Catalan language academy as tasked by the Institute. This function involves making  
a scientific study of the language, establishing linguistic regulations and monitoring the process  
whereby these regulations are applied in the sphere attributed to it: the regions of Catalan language  
and culture. The Philology Section is divided internally into six commissions: Lexicography Commission, Onomastic Commission, Grammar Commission, Standard Catalan Commission, Transcription  
Commission, Transliteration of Proper Names Commission and Publications Commission.

The Philology Section has four subsidiary societies: the Catalan Language and Literature Society,  
the Catalan Classical Studies Society, the Catalan Sociolinguistics Society and the Catalan Terminology  
Society.

 

146   –  LANGUAGE POLICY REPORT 2014

annexes

Other  
institutions

Conselh Generau d'Aran 
The Conselh Generau d’Aran (General Council of Aran) is the main government institution for the  
Val d’Aran. It is made up of the Syndic, the Plenary Council and the Accounts Auditors Commission.  
It constitutes the administrative structure of Val d’Aran as established by Act 16/1990, of 13 July  
1990, under the special system of Val d’Aran.

The Conselh Generau enjoys competences over the aspects included in the Act regulating the  
special system and the other laws passed by Parliament and the powers attributed to it by law. 
The Occitan language, known as Aranese in Val d’Aran, is the native language of this region and  
an official language in Catalonia, as established in the Statute of Autonomy of 2006 and Act 35/2010,  
of 1 October 2010, on Occitan, Aranese in Aran.

The Conselh Generau has full competence over all aspects relating to the promotion and teaching of Aranese and its corresponding culture in accordance with the general standards in force in  
Catalonia with regard to language and educational policy.

Institute of Aranese Studies 
Decree 12/2014, of 21 January 2014, granted the Institute of Aranese Studies (IEA) the status of academy and linguistic authority, based on the Linguistics Section of the existing IEA. 
The aims of the Institute of Aranese Studies with regard to the Occitan language are:

a) To establish and update the linguistic standards of the Aranese variant of Occitan and ensure  
the process of normalisation of this language is consistent throughout its linguistic domain.

b) To act as the advisory authority on the Occitan language for public administrations and the  
bodies that report to them as well as for public and private schools and publicly-owned media,  
in accordance with Article 4 of Act 35/2010, of 1 October 2010, on Occitan, Aranese in Aran.

c) To collaborate, through the activities that pertain to it, in furthering and developing the language, the culture and society in general.

Language Policy Council of Aranese Occitan  
The Language Policy Council of Aranese Occitan was constituted on 30 May 2012 in accordance with  
the provisions of Act 35/2010, of 1 October 2010, on Occitan, Aranese in Aran. It is a collegiate body  
formed by the Catalan Government and the Conselh Generau d’Aran.

The purpose of the Council is to promote and monitor the necessary actions to guarantee the  
funding and coordination of language policies with regard to Occitan Aranese.

 

© Generalitat de Catalunya 
Ministry of Culture
 

With regard to the texts: this work  
is subject to a Creative Commons  
open use licence, with recognition  
of authorship, without commercial  
use or derived works.

DESIGN: Azcunce / Ventura

LEGAL DEPOSIT: B 4180-2013